Occurrence of Personal Care Products and Transformation Processes in Chlorinated Waters

  • Mariana M. de Oliveira e Sá
  • Margarida S. Miranda
  • Joaquim C. G. Esteves da SilvaEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 36)


Personal care products (PCPs) have been found in surface water, wastewater, tap water, and swimming pool water. The chlorine used in the disinfection process of water reacts with these compounds generating chlorinated byproducts that may possess enhanced toxicity.

In the case of swimming pool water chlorine also reacts with organic material released by swimmers such as amino acids and other nitrogen compounds yielding chlorinated compounds. Besides this organic material, sunscreen cosmetics used by swimmers are also released into pool water and react with chlorine. UV-Filters 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethylaminobenzoate (EHDPABA), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and 4-tert-butyl-4′-methoxy-dibenzoylmethane (BDM) are known to suffer an electrophilic aromatic substitution of one or two atoms of hydrogen per one or two chlorine atoms leading to mono- and di-chlorinated byproducts. It has also been observed the presence of halobenzoquinones (HBQs) in pool water that results from the chlorination of UV-filters such as BDM, octocrylene, and terephthalilidene dicamphor sulfonic acid. The chlorination of some parabens has also been studied. It is known that some of the formed chlorinated byproducts are genotoxic. In this chapter we present a review on the work done so far to determine the stability of PCPs in chlorinated water and to identify the chlorinated byproducts.


Chlorinated byproducts Chlorination Personal care products UV-filters 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariana M. de Oliveira e Sá
    • 1
  • Margarida S. Miranda
    • 1
  • Joaquim C. G. Esteves da Silva
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Centro de Investigação em Química (CIQ)University of PortoPortoPortugal

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