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Release of Organic Compounds and Particulate Matter from Products, Materials, and Electrical Devices in the Indoor Environment

  • Tunga SalthammerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 64)

Abstract

In the indoor environment, the need for the reliable assessment of human exposure to indoor pollutants is still attracting increasing attention. This, however, requires a detailed understanding of the relevant compounds; their sources, physical and chemical properties, dynamics, and reactions; and their distribution among the gas phase, airborne particles, and settled dust as well as the availability of modern measurement techniques. With respect to a healthy indoor environment, only low-emitting products, which do not influence the indoor air quality in a negative way, should be used in a building. Therefore, materials and products for indoor use need to be evaluated for their chemical emissions. The demand for standardized test methods under laboratory conditions has resulted in several guidelines for determination of emission rates by use of test chambers and cells. Many studies have shown that the types of sources in occupational and residential indoor environments, the spectrum of emitting compounds, and duration of emission cover a wide range. Furthermore, it has now been recognized that both primary and secondary emissions may affect indoor air quality. The problem might become dominant when components of different materials can react with each other or when catalytic materials are applied. As a consequence, modern product development should also consider secondary products, which seem to be of importance for long-term emissions. In order to characterize the release of compounds and particles from materials under realistic conditions, it is important to study the influence of processing, substrate, and climatic parameters on emitting species and emission rates.

Keywords

Building products Cell Emission rate Emission testing Particles SVOC Test chamber VOC 

Abbreviations

CEN

European Committee for Standardization

D

Diffusion coefficient

Da

Aerodynamic particle diameter

DEHP

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

DIBP

Diisobutyl phthalate

DIN

Deutsches Institut für Normung

DINCH

Diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarbo

DINP

Diisononyl phthalate

DMF

Dimethylformamide

DnBP

Di(n-butyl) phthalate

DNPH

Diphenylhydrazine

ECMA

Previously: European Computer Manufacturers Association

FID

Flame ionization detector

FLEC

Field and Laboratory Emission Cell

FMPS

Fast Mobility Particle Sizing

GC/MS

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

KOA

Octanol–air partition coefficient

L

Loading (m2/m3)

n

Air exchange rate (h−1)

NDIR

Nondispersive infrared spectroscopy

OSB

Oriented strand board

PAS

Photoacoustic spectroscopy

PCA

Principal component analysis

PID

Photoionization detector

PM

Particulate matter

PTR-MS

Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

SBR

Styrene–butadiene rubber

SERA

Area specific emission rate

SMPS

Scanning Mobility Particle Sizing

SVOC

Semi-volatile organic compounds

TCB

Trichlorobenzene

TDI

Toluene diisocyanate

TEA

Triethylamine

TSP

Total suspended particles

TVOC

Total volatile organic compounds

VOC

Volatile organic compounds

VVOC

Very volatile organic compounds

ZDEC

Zn-diethyldithiocarbamate

μ-CTE

Micro Chamber Thermal Extractor

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor ChemistryBraunschweigGermany

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