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The Llobregat pp 193-237 | Cite as

Perfluorinated Compounds’ Analysis, Environmental Fate and Occurrence: The Llobregat River as Case Study

  • Marta Llorca
  • Francisca Pérez
  • Marinella FarréEmail author
  • Yolanda Picó
  • Damià Barceló
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 21)

Abstract

Perfluorinated compounds are industrial chemicals widely used for more than 60 years. However, during the last decade, due to their high resistance to degradation, bioaccumulation attached to proteins, biomagnification to the food chain and their relation to toxicological effects of these compounds have gained scientific and regulatory attention.

In addition, the difficulty associated with their analysis in complex matrices such as biota, food and human fluids and tissues samples should be mentioned.

This chapter provides a comprehensive examination of the current knowledge on PFCs’ analysis, environmental fate and occurrence in aquatic systems, using as a central example the Llobregat River.

Keywords

Drinking water Liquid chromatography Llobregat River Mass spectrometry Perfluorinated compounds Sediments Surface water Wastewater 

Abbreviations

AcH

Acetic acid

ACN

Acetonitrile

APCI

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

APPI

Atmospheric pressure photoionization

ASE

Accelerated solvent extractor

DMF

Dimethylformamide

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EPI

Enhanced product ion

EQS

Environmental quality standards

ESI

Electrospray ionization source

Et-FOSA

Ethyl perfluorosulphonamide

EtOAc

Ethyl acetate

FID

Flame ionization detection

FoH

Formic acid

FOSA

Perfluorosulphonamide

FOSE

Perfluorooctane sulphonamide-ethanol

FTOH

Fluorotelomer alcohol

FTUCA

Fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylate

GC

Gas chromatography

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

HLB

Hydrophilic lipophilic balance

ip-PFNA

Isopropyl perfluorononanoic acid

IT

Ion trap

LC/ARC

Liquid chromatography/accurate radioisotope counting

LC

Liquid chromatography

LC-MS/MS

Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

LC-MS

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

LRET

Long-range environmental transport

MeOH

Methanol

MLOD

Method limit of detection

MLOQ

Limits of quantification

MS

Mass spectrometry

MS2

Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

MS3

Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

MTBE

Methyl tert-butyl ether

N2

Nitrogen

NaAc

Sodium acetate

NaOH

Sodium hydroxide

N-EtFOSAA

2-(N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulphonamido) acetic acid

NH4Ac

Ammonium acetate

NH4OH

Ammonium hydroxide

N-MeFOSAA

2-(N-Methyl perfluorooctane sulphonamido) acetic acid

OW

Office of Water

PAPs

Polyfluoroalkyl phosphates

PE

High density polyethylene

PEEK

Polyether ether ketone

PFASAs

Perfluorinated sulphonamides

PFASEs

Perfluorinated sulphonamide ethanols

PFASs

Perfluoro alkyl sulphonates

PFBA

Perfluorobutanoic acid

PFBS

Perfluorobutane sulphonate

PFC

Perfluorinated compounds

PFCAs

Perfluoro carboxylic acids

PFDA

Perfluorodecanoic acid

PFDoA

Perfluorododecanoic acid

PFDS

Perfluorodecane sulphonate

PFEtS

Perfluoroethyl sulphonate

PFHpA

Perfluoroheptanoic acid

PFHpS

Perfluoroheptane sulphonate

PFHxDA

Perfluorohexadecanoic acid

PFHxS

Perfluorohexane sulphonate

PFNA

Perfluorononanoic acid

PFOA

Perfluorooctanoic acid

PFODA

Perfluorooctadecanoic acid

PFOS

Perfluorooctane sulphonate

PFOSI

Perfluorooctane sulphinate

PFPeA

Perfluoropentanoic acid

PFPrA

Perfluoropropyl acid

PFPrS

Perfluoropropyl sulphonate

PFTeA

Perfluorotetradecanoic acid

PFTOHs

Perfluorotelomers alcohols

PFUnA

Perfluoroundecanoic acid

PHA

Provisional Health Advisories

PLE

Pressurized liquid extraction

POP

Persistent organic pollutant

POSF

Perfluorooctane sulphonyl fluoride

PP

Polypropylene

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

PVDF

Polyvinylidene fluoride

QqLit

Hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap

QqQ

Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

QTOF

Hybrid quadrupole time of flight

RP

Reversed phase

RSD

Relative standard deviation

SCARCE project

Assessing and predicting effects on water quantity and quality in Iberian rivers caused by global change (2009–2014)

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SRM

Selected reaction monitoring

TBA

tert-Butyl alcohol

t-Bu-PFOS

tert-Butyl perfluorooctane sulphonate

TDI

Tolerable daily intake

TFA

Trifluoroacetic acid

THPFOS

Tetrahydro-perfluorooctane sulphonate

TOF

Time of flight

WAX

Weak anionic exchange

WWTPs

Wastewater treatment plants

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was funded by the project “Assessing and predicting effects on water quantity and quality in Iberian Rivers caused by global change” SCARCE (CSD-2009-00065).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Llorca
    • 1
  • Francisca Pérez
    • 1
  • Marinella Farré
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yolanda Picó
    • 2
  • Damià Barceló
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDAEA), (CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Nutrition and Food Chemistry LaboratoryUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  3. 3.Catalan Institute of Water Research (ICRA)GironaSpain

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