The Llobregat pp 193-237 | Cite as

Perfluorinated Compounds’ Analysis, Environmental Fate and Occurrence: The Llobregat River as Case Study

  • Marta Llorca
  • Francisca Pérez
  • Marinella FarréEmail author
  • Yolanda Picó
  • Damià Barceló
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 21)


Perfluorinated compounds are industrial chemicals widely used for more than 60 years. However, during the last decade, due to their high resistance to degradation, bioaccumulation attached to proteins, biomagnification to the food chain and their relation to toxicological effects of these compounds have gained scientific and regulatory attention.

In addition, the difficulty associated with their analysis in complex matrices such as biota, food and human fluids and tissues samples should be mentioned.

This chapter provides a comprehensive examination of the current knowledge on PFCs’ analysis, environmental fate and occurrence in aquatic systems, using as a central example the Llobregat River.


Drinking water Liquid chromatography Llobregat River Mass spectrometry Perfluorinated compounds Sediments Surface water Wastewater 



Acetic acid




Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization


Atmospheric pressure photoionization


Accelerated solvent extractor




European Food Safety Authority


Environmental Protection Agency


Enhanced product ion


Environmental quality standards


Electrospray ionization source


Ethyl perfluorosulphonamide


Ethyl acetate


Flame ionization detection


Formic acid




Perfluorooctane sulphonamide-ethanol


Fluorotelomer alcohol


Fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylate


Gas chromatography


Hydrochloric acid


Hydrophilic lipophilic balance


Isopropyl perfluorononanoic acid


Ion trap


Liquid chromatography/accurate radioisotope counting


Liquid chromatography


Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry


Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry


Long-range environmental transport




Method limit of detection


Limits of quantification


Mass spectrometry


Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry


Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry


Methyl tert-butyl ether




Sodium acetate


Sodium hydroxide


2-(N-Ethyl perfluorooctane sulphonamido) acetic acid


Ammonium acetate


Ammonium hydroxide


2-(N-Methyl perfluorooctane sulphonamido) acetic acid


Office of Water


Polyfluoroalkyl phosphates


High density polyethylene


Polyether ether ketone


Perfluorinated sulphonamides


Perfluorinated sulphonamide ethanols


Perfluoro alkyl sulphonates


Perfluorobutanoic acid


Perfluorobutane sulphonate


Perfluorinated compounds


Perfluoro carboxylic acids


Perfluorodecanoic acid


Perfluorododecanoic acid


Perfluorodecane sulphonate


Perfluoroethyl sulphonate


Perfluoroheptanoic acid


Perfluoroheptane sulphonate


Perfluorohexadecanoic acid


Perfluorohexane sulphonate


Perfluorononanoic acid


Perfluorooctanoic acid


Perfluorooctadecanoic acid


Perfluorooctane sulphonate


Perfluorooctane sulphinate


Perfluoropentanoic acid


Perfluoropropyl acid


Perfluoropropyl sulphonate


Perfluorotetradecanoic acid


Perfluorotelomers alcohols


Perfluoroundecanoic acid


Provisional Health Advisories


Pressurized liquid extraction


Persistent organic pollutant


Perfluorooctane sulphonyl fluoride






Polyvinylidene fluoride


Hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap


Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer


Hybrid quadrupole time of flight


Reversed phase


Relative standard deviation

SCARCE project

Assessing and predicting effects on water quantity and quality in Iberian rivers caused by global change (2009–2014)


Solid phase extraction


Selected reaction monitoring


tert-Butyl alcohol


tert-Butyl perfluorooctane sulphonate


Tolerable daily intake


Trifluoroacetic acid


Tetrahydro-perfluorooctane sulphonate


Time of flight


Weak anionic exchange


Wastewater treatment plants



This work was funded by the project “Assessing and predicting effects on water quantity and quality in Iberian Rivers caused by global change” SCARCE (CSD-2009-00065).


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Llorca
    • 1
  • Francisca Pérez
    • 1
  • Marinella Farré
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yolanda Picó
    • 2
  • Damià Barceló
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDAEA), (CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Nutrition and Food Chemistry LaboratoryUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain
  3. 3.Catalan Institute of Water Research (ICRA)GironaSpain

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