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The Llobregat pp 239-261 | Cite as

Illicit Drugs and Metabolites in the Llobregat River Basin

  • Cristina Postigo
  • Nicola Mastroianni
  • Miren López de AldaEmail author
  • Damià Barceló
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 21)

Abstract

Recently, the study of illicit drugs and metabolites in the aquatic environment has become a matter of scientific interest. An increasing number of studies have been carried out worldwide in this area of research in the last years. The Llobregat River basin has been one of the investigated areas in Spain. Its water quality has been shown to be affected by the presence of this type of emerging contaminants, often to a larger extent than other rivers, due to its marked Mediterranean character and urban and industrial pressures. This chapter reviews the occurrence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in both wastewaters and surface waters along the Llobregat River basin, and the analytical methodologies developed for their determination. Measured levels of these substances in the Llobregat River basin are compared with the levels found in other Spanish and European areas. Since treated wastewaters constitute the main source of illicit drugs and metabolites to the natural receiving waters, and surface waters are used for water supply purposes, the reported removal of these substances in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants along the basin is also reviewed. Finally, the use of influent wastewater levels to estimate illicit drug use in riverine populations is also discussed.

Keywords

Illicit drugs Llobregat River Psychoactive substances Surface water Wastewater 

Abbreviations

6ACM

6-Acetyl-morphine

ACN

Acetonitrile

AM

1-Phenylpropan-2-amine or amphetamine

BE

Benzoylecgonine

CAS

Conventional activated sludge

CE

Cocaethylene

COC

Cocaine

CODE

Codeine

DUI

Drug use indicator

DWTP

Drinking water treatment plant

EDDP

2-Ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine

EPH

Ephedrine

ESI

Electrospray

FENTA

Fentanyl

HER

Heroin

IS

Internal standard

KETA

Ketamine

LC

Liquid chromatography

LOQ

Limit of quantification

LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide

MA

N-Methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine or methamphetamine

MDA

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine

MDEA

3,4-Methylenedioxyethamphetamine

MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or ecstasy

MeOH

Methanol

METH

Methadone

MOR

Morphine

MS

Mass spectrometry

MS/MS

Tandem mass spectrometry

nor-CODE

Nor-codeine

nor-LSD

Nor-LSD and nor-iso-LSD

nor-MOR

Nor-morphine

OH-THC

11-Hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

O-OH-LSD

2-Oxo-3-hydroxy LSD

PCP

Phencyclidine

QqLIT

Hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap

QqQ

Triple quadrupole

RO

Reverse osmosis

RSD

Relative standard deviations

SPE

Solid phase extraction

SRM

Selective reaction monitoring

SW

Surface water

THC

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

THC-COOH

11-Nor-9-carboxy- Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

UF

Ultrafiltration

UPLC

Ultra-performance liquid chromatography

WW

Wastewater

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (projects CGL2007-64551/HID and Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065) and it reflects only the authors’ view. Nicola Mastroianni acknowledges the CSIC for the JAE predoctoral grant.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Postigo
    • 1
  • Nicola Mastroianni
    • 1
  • Miren López de Alda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Damià Barceló
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, (IDAEA-CSIC)BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA)Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de GironaGironaSpain

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