Advertisement

Psychoactive Substances in Airborne Particles in the Urban Environment

  • M. VianaEmail author
  • C. Postigo
  • C. Balducci
  • A. Cecinato
  • M. J. López de Alda
  • D. Barceló
  • B. Artíñano
  • P. López-Mahía
  • A. Alastuey
  • X. Querol
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 20)

Abstract

The Earth’s atmosphere is affected by the presence of psychotropic chemicals, both licit and illicit substances, not only in major city centres but also in suburban and rural regions. Dedicated analytical procedures, most of them based on gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, have been optimised for the detection of these substances. Nicotine and caffeine (licit substances), are widespread in the world at concentrations sometimes reaching 100ng/m3. Conversely, drugs of abuse (namely cocaine, cannabinoids, heroin and amphetamines, which are in most countries illicit) rarely exceed 1ng/m3 each. However, their presence in airborne particles is virtually ubiquitous in agreement with what was observed in the past for surface and waste waters. The spatial and temporal variability of psychotropic substances in the atmosphere has been an object of study in different types of urban areas, whereas data are scarcer for rural areas. In the current ambient concentrations, personal exposure to airborne drugs of abuse may be considered negligible, posing no harm to human health. The possibility of drawing abuse prevalence indicators from the drug contents in the air merits, however, to be explored.

Keywords

Air quality Drugs of abuse Human health Psychotropic substances 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partially funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the Ramón y Cajal programme and the project NANO-TROJAN (CTM2011-24051). Cristina Postigo acknowledges the European Social Fund and AGAUR (Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain) for their economical support through the FI pre-doctoral grant. The authors would also like to thank Prof. Amador Muñoz and his staff (Atmospheric Science Center, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), who kindly provided particulate samples from Mexico City.

References

  1. 1.
    Hannigan MP, Cass GR, Penman BW, Crespi CL, Busby JWF, Lafleur AL, Thilly WG, Simoneit BRT (1998) Bioassay-directed chemical analysis of Los Angeles airborne particulate matter using a human cell mutagenicity assay. Environ Sci Technol 32:3502–3514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    ADCA (2007) Alcohol and other drugs: chapter 1. In: Laycock A (ed) The public health bush book: a resource for working in community settings in the Northern Territory. The Alcohol and Other Drugs Council of Australia, Dept. of Health and Community Services, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Italian National Institute of Statistics ISTAT (2010) The 2010 Annual Report (Annuario 2010). ISTAT Publ., Rome, 858 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Italian Superior Institute of Health ISS (2010) Rapporto Nazionale PASSI 2009: Guadagnare salute. Rome. http://www.epicentro.iss.it/passi/default.asp
  5. 5.
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1996) Regulations restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to protect children and adolescents; final rule. Fed Regist 61:44396–45318Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana (GURI). Italian Parliament. Disposizioni ordinamentali in materia di pubblica amministrazione. Released on January the 16th, 2003. In: GURI, January the 20th, 2003, 15, Suppl. 5Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    U.K. Parliament (2006) Health Act 2006, Chapter 28. The stationery office limited, pp 1–91Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011: warning about the dangers of tobacco. WHO Press, Geneva, CH, pp 1–164Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Posselt W, Reimann L (1828) Chemischeuntersuchungen des tabaksund darstellung des eigenthumlichenwirksamenprincipsdieserpflanze. Geigers Magazin der Pharmazie 24:138–161Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Russell MAH (1971) Cigarette smoking: natural history of a dependence disorder. Br J Med Psychol 44:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Russell MAH (1979) Tobacco dependence: is nicotine rewarding or aversive? In: Krasnegor NA (ed) Cigarette smoking as a dependence process. NIDA Research Monograph 23. Public Health Service, US Department of Health Education & Welfare, Washington, DC, pp 100–122Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henningfield JE, London ED, Jaffe JH (1987) Nicotine reward: studies of abuse liability and physical dependence potential. In: Orleand L, Engel J (eds) Brain reward systems and abuse. Raven Press, New York, pp 147–164Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kessler DA (1995) Statement of David Kessler, Commissioner of Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, Accompanied by Jack E. Henningfield, Chief, Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, 103rdCongress, 2nd Session. U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1995, 28–43Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1995) FDA regulations restricting thesale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobaccoproducts to protect children and adolescents; proposed ruleanalysis regarding FDA’s jurisdiction over nicotine-containingcigarettes and smokeless tobacco products; notice. Fed Regist 60:41314–41792Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van De Ven MOM, Greenwood PA, Engels RCME, Olsson CA, Patton GC (2010) Patterns of adolescent smoking and later nicotine dependence in young adults: a 10-year prospective study. Public Health 124:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yildiz D, Liu Y-S, Ercal N, Armstrong DW (1999) Comparison of pure nicotine- and smokeless tobacco extract-induced toxicities and oxidative stress. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 37:434–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henningfield JE, Zeller M (2006) Nicotine psychopharmacology research contributionsto United States and global tobacco regulation: a look back and a look forward. Psychopharmacology 184:286–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eatough DJ, Benner CL, Bayona JM, Richards G, Lamb JD, Lee ML, Lewis EA, Hansen LD (1969) Chemical compositlon of environmental tobacco smoke. 1 Gas-phase acids and bases. Environ Sci Technol 23:679–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Häger B, Niessner R (1997) On the distribution of nicotine between the gas and particle phase and its measurement. Aerosol Sci Technol 26:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lewis DA, Colbeck I, Mariner DC (1995) Dilution of mainstream tobacco smoke and its effects upon the evaporation and diffusion of nicotine. J Aerosol Sci 26:841–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lewis DA, Colbeck I (1996) Modelling of nicotine diffusion from mainstream tobacco smoke within denuder tubes. J Aerosol Sci 27:S319–S320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Michael CM, Demetriou E, Kosmas V, Krashia A, Akkelidou D (1996) Nicotine levels in indoor athletic centres. Sci Total Environ 192:213–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schorp MK, Leyden DE (2002) Distribution analysis of airborne nicotine concentrations in hospitality facilities. Environ Int 27:567–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hengel MJ, Hung BK, Engebretson JA, Shibamoto T (2005) Analysis of nicotine in California air samples from XAD-4 resin. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:445–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kim S, Aung T, Berkeley E, Diette GB, Breysse PN (2008) Measurement of nicotine in household dust. Environ Res 108:289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sureda X, Fu M, José López M, Martínez-Sánchez JM et al (2009) Second-hand smoke in hospitals in Catalonia (2009): a cross-sectional study measuring PM2.5 and vapor-phase nicotine. Environ Res 110:750–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sleiman M, Destaillats H, Smith JD, Liu C-L, Ahmed M, Wilson KR et al (2010) Secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone-initiated reactions with nicotine and second hand tobacco smoke. Atmos Environ 44:4191–4198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Petrick L, Svidoski A, Dubovski Y (2011) Third-hand smoke: heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment. Environ Sci Technol 45:328–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    UN (1972) United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, United Nations, New York, 25 March 1972, p 44Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Daughton CG (2011) Illicit drugs: contaminants in the environment and utility in forensic epidemiology. In: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, USEPA Ed. Las Vegas, NV, pp 59–110Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leaderer BP, Hammond SK (1991) Evaluation of vapor-phase nicotine and respirable suspended particle mass as markers for environmental tobacco smoke. Environ Sci Technol 25:770–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ongwandee M, Sawanyapanich P (2011) Influence of relative humidity and gaseous ammonia on the nicotine sorption to indoor materials. Indoor Air 2011, wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/ina, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00737.x
  33. 33.
    Liang C, Pankow JF (1996) Gas/particle partitioning of organic compounds to environmental tobacco smoke: partition coefficient measurements by desorption and comparison to urban particulate material. Environ Sci Technol 30:2800–2805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pankow J, Mader B, Isabelle LM, Luo W, Pavlik A, Liang C (1997) Conversion of nicotine in tobacco smoke to its volatile and available free-base form through the action of gaseous ammonia. Environ Sci Technol 31:2428–2433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2008) Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: the MPOWER package. WHO Press, Geneva, CH, pp 1–342Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) Report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2009: implementing smoke-free environments. WHO Press, Geneva, CH, pp 1–568Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cecinato A, Balducci C, Nervegna G (2009) Occurrence of cocaine in the air of the World’s cities an emerging problem? a new tool to investigate the social incidence of drugs? Sci Total Environ 407:1683–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hammond SK (1999) Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke. Environ Health Perspect 107:329–340Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nebot M, López MJ, Gorini G, Neuberger M, Axelsson S, Pilali M, Fonseca C, Abdennbi K, Hackshaw A, Moshammer H, Laurent AM, Salles J, Georgouli M, Fondelli MC, Serrahima E, Centrich F, Hammond SK (2005) Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public places of European cities. Tobac Contr 14:60–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stillman F, Navas-Acien A, Ma J, Ma S, Avila-Tang E, Breysse P, Yang G, Samet J (2007) Second-hand tobacco smoke in public places in urban and rural China. Tobac Contr 16:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Selvavinayagam TS (2010) Air nicotine monitoring study at Chennai, Tamil Nadu to assess the level of exposure to second hand smoke in public places. Indian J Commun Med 35:186–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cecinato A, Balducci C (2007) Detection of cocaine in the airborne particles of the Italian cities Rome and Taranto. J Sep Sci 30:1930–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lai H, Corbin I, Almirall JR (2008) Headspace sampling and detection of cocaine, MDMA, and marijuana via volatile markers in the presence of potential interferences by solid phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry (SPME-IMS). Anal Bioanal Chem 392:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Postigo C, Alda MJLd, Viana M, Querol X, Alastuey A, Artiñano B, Barcelo D (2009) Determination of drugs of abuse in airborne particles by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 81(11):4382–4388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Viana M, Postigo C, Querol X, Alastuey A, Alda MJLd, Barceló D, Artíñano B, López-Mahia P, Gacio DG, Cots N (2011) Cocaine and other illicit drugs in airborne particulates in urban environments: a reflection of social conduct and population size. Environ Pollut 159(5):1241–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cecinato A, Balducci C, Budetta V, Pasini A (2010) Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy. Atmos Environ 44:2358–2363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zaromb S, Alcaraz J, Lawson D, Woo CS (1993) Detection of airborne cocaine and heroin by high-throughput liquid-absorption preconcentration and liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr 643:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Viana M, Querol X, Alastuey A, Postigo C, López de Alda MJ, Barceló D, Artíñano B (2010) Drugs of abuse in airborne particulates in urban environments. Environ Int 36:527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Balducci C, Nervegna G, Cecinato A (2009) Evaluation of principal cannabinoids in airborne particulates. Anal Chim Acta 641:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cecinato A, Balducci C, Nervegna G, Tagliacozzo G, Allegrini I (2009) Ambient air quality and drug aftermaths of the Notte Bianca (White Night) holidays in Rome. J Environ Monit 11:200–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Postigo C, Alda MJLd, Barcelo D (2008) Fully automated determination in the low nanogram per liter level of different classes of drugs of abuse in sewage water by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 80(9):3123–3134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    International Coffee Organization ICO (2011) Country datasheets 2009. London. http://www.ico.org/profiles_e.asp
  53. 53.
    Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2011) FAOSTAT. Rome. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor
  54. 54.
    OED (2007) Annual report 2007: Situación y tendencias de los problemas de drogas en España; MINISTERIO DE SANIDAD Y CONSUMO: Madrid, Spain; 199 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    United Nations Office Drug & Crime (UNODC) (2006) 2006 World Drug Report, vol 1–2. UN Publications, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    United Nation Office on Drug And Crime (2007) 2007 World Drug Report. United Nations Publications, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Postigo C, Alda MJLd, Barcelo D (2008) Analysis of drugs of abuse and their human metabolites in water by LC-MS(2): a non-intrusive tool for drug abuse estimation at the community level. TRAC-Trends Anal Chem 27(11):1053–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    European Union (2008) European Normative EN 15549 - Air Quality - Standard method for the measurement of the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in ambient air. EU Publ., BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Adachi K, Tainosho Y (2004) Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust. Environment International 30:1009–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (1998) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From air pollution to climate change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: pp 1323Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Viana
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Postigo
    • 1
  • C. Balducci
    • 2
  • A. Cecinato
    • 2
  • M. J. López de Alda
    • 1
  • D. Barceló
    • 1
  • B. Artíñano
    • 3
  • P. López-Mahía
    • 4
  • A. Alastuey
    • 1
  • X. Querol
    • 1
  1. 1.IDAEA-CSIC, Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water ResearchBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico CNRMonterotondo Stazione RMItaly
  3. 3.CIEMAT, Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology ResearchMadridSpain
  4. 4.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of A CoruñaA CoruñaSpain

Personalised recommendations