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Ecopharmacovigilance

  • L. J. G. Silva
  • C. M. Lino
  • L. Meisel
  • D. Barceló
  • A. PenaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 20)

Abstract

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) represent a group of emerging environmental contaminants. Albeit in trace amounts, they are of great concern since given their continuous introduction into the environment, their impact on ecosystems and human health is of great importance. As a result, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of medicinal products has to be evaluated and appropriate legislation has been issued in the European Union (EU).

To accomplish these requirements, the concept of ecopharmacovigilance has been recently established. This chapter seeks to summarize the many aspects and nuances surrounding this issue. A comprehensive discussion of the different contamination sources, fate, occurrence, toxicological effects on non-target organisms and associated risks is presented. Perceived needs and sustainable strategies for minimizing APIs environmental impact will be identified. Such measures are imperative to improve awareness and encourage precautionary actions.

Keywords

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) Ecopharmacovigilance Environmental risk assessment (ERA) 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. J. G. Silva
    • 1
  • C. M. Lino
    • 1
  • L. Meisel
    • 2
    • 3
  • D. Barceló
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. Pena
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Group of Health Surveillance, Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.INFARMED, I.P. - National Authority of Medicines and Health ProductsLisboaPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of Lisboa Av. Prof. Gama PintoLisboaPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Environmental ChemistryIIQAB-CSICBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Institut Català de Recerca de l’Aigua (ICRA)GironaSpain

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