The “Optimum Volume” of Acrylic Cement Filling for Treating Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Morphometric Study of Thoracolumbar Vertebrae

  • Jarosław Dzierżanowski
  • Paweł J. Winklewski
  • Monika Skotarczak
  • Zuzanna Baczkowska-Waliszewska
  • Tomasz Szmuda
  • Szymon Zdanowski
  • Marek Radkowski
  • Piotr Łuczkiewicz
  • Piotr Czapiewski
  • Paweł Słoniewski
  • Edyta Szurowska
  • Urszula DemkowEmail author
  • Arkadiusz Szarmach
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1211)


Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a treatment option in vertebral compression fractures (VCF). The aim of the study was to propose the mathematical calculation of the “optimum volume” of acrylic cement filling of the vertebral body, depending on the severity of a fracture. Two hundred computed tomography (CT) scans of vertebral columns in healthy adult Caucasians were analyzed. Vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), and vertebral body volume (VBV) were measured. The “optimum volume” of cement injections in mild (25% collapse) and moderate (40% collapse) VCF were calculated. We found that moving caudally from Th11 to L2, the mean values of the examined parameters increased: VBH from 22.6 to 26.0 mm, VBW from 34.0 to 39.5 mm, VBD from 28.1 to 30.9 mm, and VBV from 17.1 to 24.8 cm3. The calculated hypothetical “optimum volume” of cement injection increased from 7.4 to 10.0 cm3 in mild VCF and from 5.9 to 7.8 cm3 in moderate VCF, with some variability depending on the vertebral level and gender. These values are akin to those present in other past studies. We conclude that morphometric measurements, based on CT images, are a reliable source of practical anatomical savvy, which may be of help in spine surgery.


Compression fractures Computed tomography Morphometry Thoracolumbar vertebral column Vertebroplasty Spine surgery 



This work was supported by the Medical University of Gdansk and Warsaw Medical University in Poland.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study protocol was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jarosław Dzierżanowski
    • 1
  • Paweł J. Winklewski
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Monika Skotarczak
    • 2
  • Zuzanna Baczkowska-Waliszewska
    • 2
  • Tomasz Szmuda
    • 1
  • Szymon Zdanowski
    • 3
  • Marek Radkowski
    • 5
  • Piotr Łuczkiewicz
    • 6
  • Piotr Czapiewski
    • 7
    • 8
  • Paweł Słoniewski
    • 1
  • Edyta Szurowska
    • 2
  • Urszula Demkow
    • 9
    Email author
  • Arkadiusz Szarmach
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  2. 2.Second Department of RadiologyMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  3. 3.Department of Human PhysiologyMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Anatomy and PhysiologyPomeranian University in SlupskSlupskPoland
  5. 5.Department of Immunopathology of Infectious and Parasitic DiseasesWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland
  6. 6.Second Clinic of Orthopaedics and Kinetic Organ TraumatologyMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  7. 7.Department of PathomorphologyMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  8. 8.Department of PathologyOtto-von-Guericke UniversityMagdeburgGermany
  9. 9.Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Clinical Immunology of Developmental AgeWarsaw Medical UniversityWarsawPoland

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