B Cell-Attracting Chemokine-1 and Progranulin in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: New Prognostic Factors

  • W. NaumnikEmail author
  • B. Panek
  • M. Ossolińska
  • B. Naumnik
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1150)


Progranulin is a growth and survival factor implicated in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. Several studies showed that progranulin is expressed in breast cancer tissue and inversely correlates with survival. B lymphocyte chemoattractant, also known as B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), is a member of the CXC subtype of the chemokine superfamily. BCA-1 is critical for secondary lymphoid tissue development and navigation of lymphocytes within the microcompartments of the tissue. There are no data on the content of progranulin and BCA-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. To study this issue, we measured BALF content of progranulin and BCA-1 in 46 NSCLC patients before chemotherapy and 15 healthy subjects. Both markers were elevated in cancer patients compared to healthy subjects (progranulin: 61.4 (1.6–384.0) vs. 6.5 (0.6–12.9) ng/ml, p = 0.001 and BCA-1: 30.8 (24.3–70.8) vs. 15.4 (13.3–19.5) pg/ml, p = 0.0001). The cut-off BALF level concerning NSCLC vs. controls, investigated using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, yielded 6.5 ng/ml for progranulin and 15.4 pg/ml for BCA-1. We failed to find any association between the BALF content of progranulin or BCA-1 and the stage of tumor or prospectively assessed treatment response. However, BALF progranulin associated with time to tumor progression (r = 0.61; p = 0.04). In addition, a higher BALF content of BCA-1 in NSCLC patients associated with shorter overall survival. We conclude that progranulin and BCA-1 in BALF of NSCLC patients before chemotherapy may be prognostic factors of cancer progression.


B cell-attracting chemokine–1 Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid Non-small-cell lung cancer Progranulin Survival marker 


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest in relation to this article.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. The study protocol was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of Bialystok in Poland.

Informed Consent

Informed written consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Naumnik
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Panek
    • 1
  • M. Ossolińska
    • 1
  • B. Naumnik
    • 2
  1. 1.Ist Department of Lung Diseases and Chemotherapy of Respiratory NeoplasmsMedical University of BialystokBialystokPoland
  2. 2.Ist Department of Nephrology and Transplantation with Dialysis UnitMedical University of BialystokBialystokPoland

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