The Great Harmony in Translational Medicine: Biomaterials and Stem Cells

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1119)


Thanks to novel approaches and emerging technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have made a great effort to regenerate damaged tissue or organ with no donor needed. The approaches involve two fundamental components: bioengineered scaffolds and stem cells. Bioengineered scaffolds which can also be enriched with bioactive molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, and so on have been fabricated using a wide range of synthetically or naturally derived biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. These scaffolds should support cell attachment, migration, proliferation, and/or differentiation by mimicking the duty of native extracellular matrix. Stem cells are the other significant players in formation of the neotissue. Stem cells, bone marrow, or adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, in particular, have been widely used for this purpose. Recently, investigators have preferred to use progenitor cells including cardiac and neural cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The synergy of the bioengineered scaffolds and autologous stem cells is crucial for the successful reconstruction of damaged or missing tissues.

This review summarizes a number of excellent studies conducted on current applications of bioengineered scaffolds, novel fabrication methods, stem cells used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and the future of the tissue-engineered products.


Stem cells Bioengineered scaffolds Industry Translational medicine Regenerative therapy Tissue engineering 





Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells


Cardiac stem cells


Extracellular matrix


Embryonic stem cells


Food and Drug Administration


Fused deposition modeling


Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells


Human umbilical vein endothelial cells


Induced pluripotent stem cells


Mesenchymal stem cells


Neural stem cells


Neural progenitor cells


Powder-fusion printing


Spinal cord injury


Stereolithographic Apparatus



The authors would like to thank Prof. Kaan C. Emregul for his comments and language proofreading.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aguado BA, Bushnell GG, Rao SS et al (2017) Engineering the pre-metastatic niche. Nat Biomed Eng 1:77Google Scholar
  2. Alcayaga-Miranda F, Varas-Godoy M, Khoury M (2016) Harnessing the Angiogenic potential of stem cell-derived exosomes for vascular regeneration. Stem Cells Int 2016:1–11Google Scholar
  3. Arslan YE, Hız MM, Sezgin Arslan T (2015) The use of decellularized animal tissues in regenerative therapies. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 21:139–145Google Scholar
  4. Arslan YE, Sezgin Arslan T, Derkus B et al (2017) Fabrication of human hair keratin/jellyfish collagen/eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: from waste to regenerative medicine products. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 154:160–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Atala A (2004) Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: concepts for clinical application. Rejuvenation Res 7:15–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Atala A, Bauer SB, Soker S et al (2006) Tissue-engineered autologous bladders for patients needing cystoplasty. Lancet 367:1241–1246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Atala A, Kasper FK, Mikos AG (2012) Engineering complex tissues. Sci Transl Med 4:160rv12–160rv12Google Scholar
  8. Badylak SF (2004) Xenogeneic extracellular matrix as a scaffold for tissue reconstruction. Transpl Immunol 12:367–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Badylak SF, Gilbert TW (2008) Immune response to biologic scaffold materials. Semin Immunol 20:109–116PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Badylak SF, Freytes D, Gilbert TW (2009) Extracellular matrix as a biological scaffold material: structure and function. Acta Biomater 5:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Badylak SF, Taylor D, Uygun K (2011) Whole-organ tissue engineering: decellularization and recellularization of three-dimensional matrix scaffolds. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 13:27–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bankoti K, Rameshbabu AP, Datta S et al (2017) Accelerated healing of full thickness dermal wounds by macroporous waterborne polyurethane-chitosan hydrogel scaffolds. Mater Sci Eng C 81:133–143Google Scholar
  13. Bellei B, Migliano E, Tedesco M et al (2017) Maximizing non-enzymatic methods for harvesting adipose-derived stem from lipoaspirate: technical considerations and clinical implications for regenerative surgery. Sci Rep 7:1–15Google Scholar
  14. Benning L, Gutzweiler L, Tröndle K et al (2017) Cytocompatibility testing of hydrogels toward bioprinting of mesenchymal stem cells. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 105:3231–3241Google Scholar
  15. Berthiaume F, Maguire TJ, Yarmush ML (2011) Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: history, progress, and challenges. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2:403–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhat S, Kumar A (2013) Biomaterials and bioengineering tomorrow’s healthcare. Biomatter 3:37–41Google Scholar
  17. Bianco P, Robey PG, Simmons PJ (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells: revisiting history, concepts, and assays. Cell Stem Cell 2:313–319PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Börger V, Bremer M, Ferrer-Tur R et al (2017) Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their potential as novel immunomodulatory therapeutic agents. Int J Mol Sci 18:1450PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruno S, Camussi G (2013) Role of mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles in tissue repair. Pediatr Nephrol 28:2249–2254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan BP, Leong KW (2008) Scaffolding in tissue engineering: general approaches and tissue-specific considerations. Eur Spine J 17:467–479PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cho S-W, Lim SH, Kim I-K et al (2005) Small-diameter blood vessels engineered with bone marrow-derived cells. Ann Surg 241:506–515PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. de Paula DRM, Capuano V, Filho DM et al (2017) Biological properties of cardiac mesenchymal stem cells in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy. Life Sci 188:45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Den Hondt M, Vanaudenaerde BM, Maughan EF et al (2017) An optimized non-destructive protocol for testing mechanical properties in decellularized rabbit trachea. Acta Biomater 60:291–301Google Scholar
  24. Derkus B, Emregul KC, Emregul E (2017) A new approach in stem cell research-exosomes: their mechanism of action via cellular pathways. Cell Biol Int 41:466–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Di Rocco G, Baldari S, Toietta G (2017) Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles-mediated microRNA delivery for cancer therapy. Transl Cancer Res 6:S1321–S1330Google Scholar
  26. Donderwinkel I, van Hest JCM, Cameron NR (2017) Bio-inks for 3D bioprinting: recent advances and future prospects. Polym Chem 8:4451–4471Google Scholar
  27. Erten E, Sezgin Arslan T, Derkus B et al (2016) Detergent-free decellularization of bovine costal cartilage for chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. RSC Adv 6:94236–94246Google Scholar
  28. Fitzpatrick LE, McDevitt TC (2015) Cell-derived matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Biomater Sci 3:12–24PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Flanagan TC, Pandit A (2003) Living artificial heart valve alternatives: a review. Eur Cell Mater 6:28–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gao C, Peng S, Feng P et al (2017) Bone biomaterials and interactions with stem cells. Bone Res 5:17059PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Gazzarri M, Bartoli C, Mota C et al (2013) Fibrous star poly(ε-caprolactone) melt-electrospun scaffolds for wound healing applications. J Bioact Compat Polym 28:492–507Google Scholar
  32. Geissler SA, Sabin AL, Besser RR et al (2018) Biomimetic hydrogels direct spinal progenitor cell differentiation and promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury. J Neural Eng 15:25004Google Scholar
  33. Gilbert TW, Sellaro TL, Badylak SF (2006) Decellularization of tissues and organs. Biomaterials 27:3675–3683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Godara P, Nordon RE, McFarland CD (2008) Mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 83:397–407Google Scholar
  35. Goldman SA, Sim F (2005) Neural progenitor cells of the adult brain (Bock G, Goode J, eds). Novartis Found Symp 265:66–80–97Google Scholar
  36. Gomzikova MO, Rizvanov AA (2017) Current trends in regenerative medicine: from cell to cell-free therapy. Bionanoscience 7:240–245Google Scholar
  37. Gong M, Yu B, Wang J et al (2017) Mesenchymal stem cells release exosomes that transfer miRNAs to endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis. Oncotarget 8:45200–45212PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Goradel NH, Hour FG, Negahdari B et al (2018) Stem cell therapy: a new therapeutic option for cardiovascular diseases. J Cell Biochem 119:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Goyal R, Vega ME, Pastino AK et al (2017) Development of hybrid scaffolds with natural extracellular matrix deposited within synthetic polymeric fibers. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 105:2162–2170Google Scholar
  40. Griffith LG, Naughton G (2002) Tissue engineering–current challenges and expanding opportunities. Science 295:1009–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Han C, Sun X, Liu L et al (2016) Exosomes and their therapeutic potentials of stem cells. Stem Cells Int 2016:1–11Google Scholar
  42. Harris L, Zalucki O, Clément O et al (2018) Neurogenic differentiation by hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cells is biased by NFIX expression. Development 145:dev155689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hawking SW (1988) A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes. Bantam, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Hixon KR, Melvin AM, Lin AY et al (2017) Cryogel scaffolds from patient-specific 3D-printed molds for personalized tissue-engineered bone regeneration in pediatric cleft-craniofacial defects. J Biomater Appl 32:598–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hu J, Seeberger PH, Yin J (2016) Using carbohydrate-based biomaterials as scaffolds to control human stem cell fate. Org Biomol Chem 14:8648–8658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hussey GS, Keane TJ, Badylak SF (2017) The extracellular matrix of the gastrointestinal tract: a regenerative medicine platform. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:540–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Inanç B, Arslan YE, Seker S et al (2009) Periodontal ligament cellular structures engineered with electrospun poly(DL-lactide- co -glycolide) nanofibrous membrane scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 90A:186–195Google Scholar
  48. Jokanović V, Čolović B, Antonijević Đ et al (2017) Various methods of 3D and bio-printing. Serbian Dent J 64:136–145Google Scholar
  49. Kamao H, Mandai M, Ohashi W et al (2017) Evaluation of the surgical device and procedure for extracellular matrix–scaffold–supported human iPSC–derived retinal pigment epithelium cell sheet transplantation. Investig Opthalmology Vis Sci 58:211Google Scholar
  50. Kaushik G, Leijten J, Khademhosseini A (2017) Concise review: organ engineering: design, technology, and integration. Stem Cells 35:51–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Khademhosseini A, Vacanti JP, Langer R (2009) Progress in tissue engineering. Sci Am 300:64–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kim HO, Choi S-M, Kim H-S (2013) Mesenchymal stem cell-derived secretome and microvesicles as a cell-free therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Tissue Eng Regen Med 10:93–101Google Scholar
  53. Kolar K, Weber W (2017) Synthetic biological approaches to optogenetically control cell signaling. Curr Opin Biotechnol 47:112–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Konno M, Hamabe A, Hasegawa S et al (2013) Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regenerative medicine. Develop Growth Differ 55:309–318Google Scholar
  55. Koudan EV, Bulanova EA, Pereira FDAS et al (2016) Patterning of tissue spheroids biofabricated from human fibroblasts on the surface of electrospun polyurethane matrix using 3D bioprinter. Int J Bioprinting 2:45–52Google Scholar
  56. Langer R, Vacanti J (1993) Tissue Eng Sci (80- ) 260:920–926Google Scholar
  57. Langer RS, Vacanti JP (1999) Tissue engineering: the challenges ahead. Sci Am 280:86–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Li W, Liu Y, Zhang P et al (2018) Tissue-engineered bone immobilized with human adipose stem cells-derived exosomes promotes bone regeneration. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10:5240–5254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lin H (2002) The stem-cell niche theory: lessons from flies. Nat Rev Genet 3:931–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lou G, Chen Z, Zheng M et al (2017) Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes as a new therapeutic strategy for liver diseases. Exp Mol Med 49:e346PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Lui H, Vaquette C, Bindra R (2017) Tissue engineering in hand surgery: a technology update. J Hand Surg Am 42:727–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lv H, Wang H, Zhang Z et al (2017) Biomaterial stiffness determines stem cell fate. Life Sci 178:42–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mao AS, Mooney DJ (2015) Regenerative medicine: current therapies and future directions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112:14452–14459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Martinez PR, Goyanes A, Basit AW et al (2017) Fabrication of drug-loaded hydrogels with stereolithographic 3D printing. Int J Pharm 532:313–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mason C, Dunnill P (2008) The strong financial case for regenerative medicine and the Regen industry. Regen Med 3:351–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mason C, Dunnill P (2010) A brief definition of regenerative medicine [EDITORIAL]. Regen Med 3:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Melhem MR, Park J, Knapp L et al (2017) 3D printed stem-cell-laden, microchanneled hydrogel patch for the enhanced release of cell-secreting factors and treatment of myocardial infarctions. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 3:1980–1987Google Scholar
  68. Murphy KC, Whitehead J, Zhou D et al (2017) Engineering fibrin hydrogels to promote the wound healing potential of mesenchymal stem cell spheroids. Acta Biomater 64:176–186PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. NASDAQ Globe News (2017) Global $53 billion Regenerative Medicine Market Analysis & Forecast Report 2017–2021: focus on stem cells, tissue engineering, BioBanking & CAR-T Industries. NASDAQ Globe News WireGoogle Scholar
  70. Nemeno-Guanzon JG, Lee S, Berg JR et al (2012) Trends in tissue engineering for blood vessels. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012:1–14Google Scholar
  71. Nerem RM (2010) Regenerative medicine: the emergence of an industry. J R Soc Interface 7:S771–S775PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Ning L-J, Jiang Y-L, Zhang C-H et al (2017) Fabrication and characterization of a decellularized bovine tendon sheet for tendon reconstruction. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 105:2299–2311Google Scholar
  73. Ozler SB, Bakirci E, Kucukgul C et al (2017) Three-dimensional direct cell bioprinting for tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res Part B Appl Biomater 105:2530–2544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Pereira RF, Bártolo PJ (2015) 3D photo-fabrication for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Engineering 1:090–112Google Scholar
  75. Plagnol AC, Rowley E, Martin P et al (2009) Industry perceptions of barriers to commercialization of regenerative medicine products in the UK. Regen Med 4:549–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Porter JR, Ruckh TT, Popat KC (2009) Bone tissue engineering: a review in bone biomimetics and drug delivery strategies. Biotechnol Prog 25:1539–1560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Pournaqi F, Ghiaee A, Vakilian S et al (2017) Improved proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on polyaniline composited by polyethersulfone nanofibers. Biologicals 45:78–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Prajumwongs P, Weeranantanapan O, Jaroonwitchawan T et al (2016) Human embryonic stem cells: a model for the study of neural development and neurological diseases 2016Google Scholar
  79. Quan Q, Chang B, Meng HY et al (2016) Use of electrospinning to construct biomaterials for peripheral nerve regeneration. Rev Neurosci 27:761–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Repina NA, Rosenbloom A, Mukherjee A et al (2017) At light speed: advances in optogenetic systems for regulating cell signaling and behavior. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 8:13–39PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Riazifar M, Pone EJ, Lötvall J et al (2017) Stem cell extracellular vesicles: extended messages of regeneration. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 57:125–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rim NG, Shin CS, Shin H (2013) Current approaches to electrospun nanofibers for tissue engineering. Biomed Mater 8:14102Google Scholar
  83. Rosenzweig ES, Brock JH, Lu P et al (2018) Restorative effects of human neural stem cell grafts on the primate spinal cord. Nat Med 24:484–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sadtler K, Singh A, Wolf MT et al (2016) Design, clinical translation and immunological response of biomaterials in regenerative medicine. Nat Rev Mater 1:16040Google Scholar
  85. Safari S, Malekvandfard F, Babashah S et al (2016) Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: a novel potential therapeutic avenue for cardiac regeneration. Cell Mol Biol 62:66–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Saito S, Hiemori K, Kiyoi K et al (2018) Glycome analysis of extracellular vesicles derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells using lectin microarray. Sci Rep 8:3997PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Santoso MR, Yang PC (2017) Molecular imaging of stem cells and exosomes for myocardial regeneration. Curr Cardiovasc Imaging Rep 10:37Google Scholar
  88. Seker S, Arslan YE, Elcin YM (2010) Electrospun Nanofibrous PLGA/fullerene-C60 coated quartz crystal microbalance for real-time Gluconic acid monitoring. IEEE Sensors J 10:1342–1348Google Scholar
  89. Seyler TM, Bracey DN, Plate JF et al (2017) The development of a xenograft-derived scaffold for tendon and ligament reconstruction using a Decellularization and oxidation protocol. Arthrosc J Arthrosc Relat Surg 33:374–386Google Scholar
  90. Shenghui H, Nakada D, Morrison SJ (2009) Mechanisms of stem cell self-renewal. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 25:377–406Google Scholar
  91. Soletti L, Hong Y, Guan J et al (2010) A bilayered elastomeric scaffold for tissue engineering of small diameter vascular grafts. Acta Biomater 6:110–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Subia B, Kundu J, Kundu CS (2010) Biomaterial scaffold fabrication techniques for potential tissue engineering applications. In: Eberli D (ed) Tissue Eng. InTech, p 524Google Scholar
  93. Sutherland AJ, Beck EC, Dennis SC et al (2015) Decellularized cartilage may be a chondroinductive material for osteochondral tissue engineering (Almarza A, ed). PLoS One 10:e0121966PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Takahashi K, Yamanaka S (2006) Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 126:663–676PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS et al (1998) Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science (80- ) 282:1145–1147Google Scholar
  96. Toh WS, Lai RC, Hui JHP et al (2016) MSC exosome as a cell-free MSC therapy for cartilage regeneration: implications for osteoarthritis treatment. Semin Cell Dev BiolGoogle Scholar
  97. Torella D, Ellison GM, Karakikes I et al (2007) Cardiovascular development: towards biomedical applicability. Cell Mol Life Sci 64:661–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Tuan RS, Boland G, Tuli R (2003) Adult mesenchymal stem cells and cell-based tissue engineering. Arthritis Res Ther 5:32–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ullah I, Subbarao RB, Rho GJ (2015) Human mesenchymal stem cells – current trends and future prospective. Biosci Rep 35:1–18Google Scholar
  100. Vacanti CA (2006) The history of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med 10:569–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. van de Kamp J, Paefgen V, Wöltje M et al (2017) Mesenchymal stem cells can be recruited to wounded tissue via hepatocyte growth factor-loaded biomaterials. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 11:2988–2998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Vargas-Alfredo N, Dorronsoro A, Cortajarena AL et al (2017) Antimicrobial 3D porous scaffolds prepared by additive manufacturing and breath figures. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:37454–37462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Vasudevan S, Huang J, Botterman B et al (2014) Detergent-free decellularized nerve grafts for long-gap peripheral nerve reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2:e201PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Vizoso F, Eiro N, Cid S et al (2017) Mesenchymal stem cell Secretome: toward cell-free therapeutic strategies in regenerative medicine. Int J Mol Sci 18:1852PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang X, Fang Q, You C et al (2014) Construction of skin substitutes using minced split-thickness autografts and biodegradable synthetic scaffolds. Burns 40:1232–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang Y, Bao J, Wu X et al (2016) Genipin crosslinking reduced the immunogenicity of xenogeneic decellularized porcine whole-liver matrices through regulation of immune cell proliferation and polarization. Sci Rep 6:24779PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Wang L, Kang J, Sun C et al (2017) Mapping porous microstructures to yield desired mechanical properties for application in 3D printed bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants. Mater Des 133:62–68Google Scholar
  108. Wei C-C, Lin AB, Hung S-C (2014) Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine for musculoskeletal diseases: bench, bedside, and industry. Cell Transplant 23:505–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. White IA, Sanina C, Balkan W et al (2016) Mesenchymal stem cells in cardiology. In: Gnecchi M (ed) Mesenchymal stem cells, methods in molecular biology. Springer, New York, pp 55–87Google Scholar
  110. Wiles K, Fishman JM, De Coppi P et al (2016) The host immune response to tissue-engineered organs: current problems and future directions. Tissue Eng Part B Rev 22:208–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wolf MT, Dearth CL, Sonnenberg SB et al (2015) Naturally derived and synthetic scaffolds for skeletal muscle reconstruction. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 84:208–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Xing Q, Qian Z, Jia W et al (2017) Natural extracellular matrix for cellular and tissue biomanufacturing. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 3:1462–1476Google Scholar
  113. Xu S, Lu F, Cheng L et al (2017) Preparation and characterization of small-diameter decellularized scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering in an animal model. Biomed Eng Online 16:55PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Yu B, Zhang X, Li X (2014) Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Mol Sci 15:4142–4157PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang L, Hu J, Athanasiou KA (2009) The role of tissue engineering in articular cartilage repair and regeneration. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 37:1–57PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang J, Liu X, Li H et al (2016) Exosomes/tricalcium phosphate combination scaffolds can enhance bone regeneration by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Stem Cell Res Ther 7:1–14Google Scholar
  117. Zhang Y-Z, Liu F, Song C-G et al (2018) Exosomes derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells promote neural stem cell expansion while maintain their stemness in culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 495:892–898PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Regenerative Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Engineering FacultyCanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityCanakkaleTurkey

Personalised recommendations