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Physical Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in Heart Failure Patients

  • Cesare de GregorioEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1067)

Abstract

Regardless of advances in medical and interventional treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a limited number of patients attend a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme on a regular basis. Due to modern therapies more individuals will be surviving an acute cardiovascular event, but the expected burden of chronic heart failure will be increasing worldwide.

However, both in high- and low-income countries, secondary prevention after an acute myocardial infarction or stroke has been implemented in less than a half of eligible patients.

Combined interventions are still needed to reduce decompensations, hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure patients from any origin. In addition to medical treatments, regular exercise has been demonstrated to improve metabolic and hemodynamic conditions in both asymptomatic risk factor carriers and cardiac patients. Risk factor control and exercise should gather together for an effective management of patients.

Exercise-based training is a core component of primary and secondary prevention. It should involve healthy carriers of cardiovascular risk factors, and patients with cardiomyopathy as well. The supposed attenuated effect of CR in the era of advanced revascularization and structural interventions is due to the heterogeneity of training models and physical training in the literature. Moreover, lifestyle modification, psycho-social challenges and patient’s compliance are potential confounders.

In this chapter the most recent evidences about training modalities and potential benefit of CR in heart failure patients are discussed.

Keywords

Cardiac rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease Exercise Functional evaluation Heart failure Clinical outcomes Physical training 

Acronyms

AF

Atrial Fibrillation

CET

Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test

CHF

Chronic/Congestive Heart Failure

CO2

Carbon Dioxide Oxygen

CR

Cardiac Rehabilitation

CT

Continuous Training

CV

Cardiovascular

CVD

Cardiovascular Disease

HR

Heart Rate

ICD

Intracardiac Implantable Defibrillator

IMT

Inspiratory Muscle Training

IT

Interval Training

LV

Left Ventricle/Ventricular

O2

Oxygen

VO2

Oxygen Consumption

SET

Strength-exercise Training

TAVI

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Notes

Conflict of Interest

None to declare.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine – Cardiology UnitUniversity Hospital Medical School “Gaetano Martino”MessinaItaly

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