The Fight Against Tuberculosis in the Mid-nineteenth Century: The Pivotal Contribution of Edoardo Maragliano (1849–1940)

  • Mariano Martini
  • Ilaria Barberis
  • Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
  • Filippo Paluan
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1057)

Abstract

The second half of the nineteenth century saw the development of new medical “specialties”, which, like the idea of constitutional disease, had a profound influence on medical practice. Against this lively “backdrop”, Edoardo Maragliano played a central role in medicine’s “renaissance” in Italy. Having graduated in medicine in 1870 at the University of Naples, he worked as an assistant in the University Medical Clinic. After beginning his academic career as professor of pathology at the Faculty of Medicine in Genoa in 1877, he became full professor of internal medicine in 1881. While he studied all fields of internal medicine, his research focused mainly on tuberculosis.

His experiments in the medical clinic enabled Maragliano to announce the possibility of immunization against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although criticized for using an inactivated vaccine, Maragliano continued to advocate vaccination with any type of vaccine.

In the Senate of the Kingdom of Italy, Maragliano actively debated social, economic and sanitary questions, without neglecting his duties as a physician and professor. As an officer during the First World War, he organized military health services and taught medicine at the Military University of Padua.

In 1924, Maragliano created the first Italian specialty school in the study of tuberculosis, which provided physicians with specific training in the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of the disease. His scientific zeal and his vision of modern medicine prompted the introduction of new specializations, such as radiology and, especially, pneumology, which led to the creation of one of Europe’s most renowned medical schools.

Keywords

Edoardo Maragliano History of tuberculosis Internal medicine Public health Vaccination 

Notes

Acknowledgements and Note

We thank Bernard Patrick and Giorgia Nicholà Monaco for linguistic revision.

References

  1. Argentina G (1931) L’inizio clinico della infezione tubercolare: accertamento clinico, cenni di radiodiagnostica e di tecnica di laboratorio. Tipografia Pellegrini, Pisa, pp II–VGoogle Scholar
  2. Barberis I, Bragazzi NL, Galluzzo L et al (2017) The history of tuberculosis: from the first historical records to the isolation of Koch’s bacillus. J Prev Med 58:E9–E12Google Scholar
  3. Benedicenti A (1940) Edoardo Maragliano: commemorazione letta alla Società di Scienze e Lettere di Genova. In: Atti della Società di Scienze e Lettere di Genova. Premiata Tipografia Successori Fratelli Fusi, Pavia, pp 16–24Google Scholar
  4. Borghi L (2015) Il medico di Roma. Vita, morte e miracoli di Guido Baccelli (1830–1916). Armando Editore, Rome, pp 234–237Google Scholar
  5. Cardinale AE (1995) Radiologic pantheon. Edoardo Maragliano and the Italian forerunners of the specialty. Radiol Med 89:573–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Costantini G (1950) Edoardo Maragliano. Riforma Med 64:141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Maragliano E (1889) Rimedi nuovi e nuovi metodi di cura. Manuale di terapia clinica moderna ad uso dei medici e degli studenti. Vallardi, Milan, vol. 2, pp 3–23 and 295–317Google Scholar
  8. Maragliano E (1903) La lotta e la immunizzazione dell’organismo contro la tubercolosi. In: Conferenza tenuta al Congresso Internazionale Medico di Madrid. Vallardi, Milan, pp 6–13Google Scholar
  9. Maragliano E (1904) La terapia specifica della tubercolosi e la sua vaccinazione. Vallardi, Milan, pp 4–34Google Scholar
  10. Maragliano E (1907) Sullo stato attuale della terapia specifica della tubercolosi. Vallardi, Milan, pp 4–41Google Scholar
  11. Martini M, Paluan F (2017) Edoardo Maragliano (1849–1940): the unfortunate fate of a real pioneer in the fight against tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 106:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Massini G (1907) Edoardo Maragliano nella vita e nella scienza. In: Rivista Popolare d’Igiene e Medicina. Fratelli Vaccarezza, Genoa, pp 11–15Google Scholar
  13. Pizzini L (1896) Il Prof. Edoardo Maragliano e la sieroterapia della tisi, vol IV. Istituto Italiano di arti grafiche, Bergamo, pp 136–143Google Scholar
  14. Premuda L (1975) Storia della Medicina. CEDAM, Padua, pp 242–244Google Scholar
  15. Salvioli G (1956) In memoria di Edoardo Maragliano. Annali. Sanita Pubblica 17:887–893Google Scholar
  16. Tedeschi E (1907) Le onoranze al prof. Edoardo Maragliano pel suo 25° anno d’insegnamento. In: Cronaca della Clinica Medica di Genova. Stabilimento Tipografico G. Testa, Biella, pp 201–224Google Scholar
  17. Tognotti E (2012) Il morbo lento, la tisi nell’Italia dell’Ottocento. F. Angeli editore, Sassari, pp 157–161Google Scholar
  18. Urizio L (1940) Commemorazione del Senatore Edoardo Maragliano. In: Bollettino dell’Associazione medica triestina. Tipografia del Lloyd triestino, Trieste, pp 250–252Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariano Martini
    • 1
  • Ilaria Barberis
    • 2
  • Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
    • 2
  • Filippo Paluan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Health Sciences, Section of History of Medicine and EthicsUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesUniversity of GenoaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular SciencesUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations