Co-infection with Influenza Viruses and Influenza-Like Virus During the 2015/2016 Epidemic Season

  • K. SzymańskiEmail author
  • K. Cieślak
  • D. Kowalczyk
  • L.B. Brydak
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 968)


Concerning viral infection of the respiratory system, a single virus can cause a variety of clinical symptoms and the same set of symptoms can be caused by different viruses. Moreover, infection is often caused by a combination of viruses acting at the same time. The present study demonstrates, using multiplex RT-PCR and real-time qRT-PCR, that in the 2015/2016 influenza season, co-infections were confirmed in patients aged 1 month to 90 years. We found 73 co-infections involving influenza viruses, 17 involving influenza viruses and influenza-like viruses, and six involving influenza-like viruses. The first type of co-infections above mentioned was the most common, amounting to 51 cases, with type A and B viruses occurring simultaneously. There also were four cases of co-infections with influenza virus A/H1N1/pdm09 and A/H1N1/ subtypes and two cases with A/H1N1/pdm09 and A/H3N2/ subtypes. The 2015/2016 epidemic season was characterized by a higher number of confirmed co-infections compared with the previous seasons. Infections by more than one respiratory virus were most often found in children and in individuals aged over 65.


Co-infections Epidemic season Influenza Multiplex RT-PCR Respiratory viruses Viral infections 



Funded by NIPH-NIH 5/EM.1.

Conflicts of Interests

The authors declare no conflict of interests in relation to this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Szymański
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. Cieślak
    • 1
  • D. Kowalczyk
    • 1
  • L.B. Brydak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Influenza Research, National Influenza CenterNational Institute of Public Health – National Institute of HygieneWarsawPoland

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