Biochemistry of Oxidative Stress

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 878)


Generation of reactive oxygen species is a physiological process that take place in every aerobic organism. Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants. The imbalance between those two fractions may potentially lead to cell damage at molecular level. Since oxidants are formed at a different rate as a normal product of aerobic metabolism, complex biochemical mechanisms are required to regulate the entire process.


Antioxidation Free radicals Oxidative stress Reactive oxygen species Reactive nitrogen species 


  1. Babior BM, Lambeth JD, Nauseef W (2002) The neutrophil NADPH oxidase. Arch Biochem Biophys 397(2):342–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bleier L, Drose S (2013) Superoxide generation by complex III: from mechanistic rationales to functional consequences. Biochim Biophys Acta 1827(11–12):1320–1331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brand MD, Affourtit C, Esteves TC, Green K, Lambert AJ, Miwa S, Pakay JL, Parker N (2004) Mitochondrial superoxide: production, biological effects, and activation of uncoupling proteins. Free Radic Biol Med 37(6):755–767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooke MS, Evans MD, Dizdaroglu M, Lunec J (2003) Oxidative DNA damage: mechanisms, mutation, and disease. FASEB J 17(10):1195–1214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dalle-Donne I, Aldini G, Carini M, Colombo R, Rossi R, Milzani A (2006) Protein carbonylation, cellular dysfunction, and disease progression. J Cell Mol Med 10(2):389–406PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Evans MD, Dizdaroglu M, Cooke MS (2004) Oxidative DNA damage and disease: induction, repair and significance. Mutat Res 567(1):1–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Farrera C, Fadeel B (2013) Macrophage clearance of neutrophil extracellular traps is a silent process. J Immunol 191(5):2647–2656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (1984) Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 219(1):1–14PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hampton MB, Kettle AJ, Winterbourn CC (1998) Inside the neutrophil phagosome: oxidants, myeloperoxidase, and bacterial killing. Blood 92(9):3007–3017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Han D, Williams E, Cadenas E (2001) Mitochondrial respiratory chain-dependent generation of superoxide anion and its release into the intermembrane space. Biochem J 353(Pt 2):411–416PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Haynes V, Elfering S, Traaseth N, Giulivi C (2004) Mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase: enzyme expression, characterization, and regulation. J Bioenerg Biomembr 36(4):341–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Jezek P, Hlavata L (2005) Mitochondria in homeostasis of reactive oxygen species in cell, tissues, and organism. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37(12):2478–2503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lambeth JD, Kamin H (1976) Adrenodoxin reductase. Properties of the complexes of reduced enzyme with NADP+ and NADPH. J Biol Chem 251(14):4299–4306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lushchak VI (2007) Free radical oxidation of proteins and its relationship with functional state of organisms. Biochemistry (Mosc) 72(8):809–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mitchell P (1976) Possible molecular mechanisms of the protonmotive function of cytochrome systems. J Theor Biol 62(2):327–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Morrison RT, Boyd RN (1992) Organic chemistry, 6th edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  17. Nakaya H, Takeda Y, Tohse N, Kanno M (1992) Mechanism of the membrane depolarization induced by oxidative stress in guinea-pig ventricular cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol 24(5):523–534CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Niki E, Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Noguchi N (2005) Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338(1):668–676CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Paselk R (2008) Biochemical toxicology. Humboldt State University. Accessed on 27 Mar 2015
  20. Rieske JS, Maclennan DH, Coleman R (1964) Isolation and properties of an iron-protein from the (reduced coenzyme Q)-cytochrome C reductase complex of the respiratory chain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 15(4):338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rom O, Avezov K, Aizenbud D, Reznick AZ (2013) Cigarette smoking and inflammation revisited. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 187(1):5–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Schrader M, Fahimi HD (2004) Mammalian peroxisomes and reactive oxygen species. Histochem Cell Biol 122(4):383–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sies H (1997) Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Exp Physiol 82(2):291–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Takei H, Araki A, Watanabe H, Ichinose A, Sendo F (1996) Rapid killing of human neutrophils by the potent activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) accompanied by changes different from typical apoptosis or necrosis. J Leukoc Biol 59(2):229–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Takeshita M, Tamura M, Yubisui T (1983) Microsomal electron-transport reductase activities and fatty acid elongation in rat brain. Developmental changes, regional distribution and comparison with liver activity. Biochem J 214(3):751–756PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Diagnostic and Clinical Immunology of Developmental AgeMedical University of WarsawWarsawPoland
  2. 2.Postgraduate School of Molecular MedicineWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations