Metal Complexes as Structure-Directing Agents for Zeolites and Related Microporous Materials

  • Abigail E. Watts
  • Alessandro Turrina
  • Paul A. Wright
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 175)


Metal complexes can act as structure-directing agents (SDAs) for zeolites and zeotypes, either alone or together with additional SDAs in dual-templating approaches. Such complexes include organometallic cobaltocenium ions, alkali metal crown ether complexes, first-row transition-metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) polyamines and thiol-complexed second- and third-row transition metals (Pd, Pt). Their inclusion has been demonstrated in some cases by crystallographic methods but more commonly by spectroscopy (UV-visible, X-ray absorption, Mössbauer). The unique feature of this class of template is that they can not only direct crystallisation but also give solids with homogeneously distributed metal cations or metal oxide species upon calcination, precluding the need for an additional post-synthesis modification step. Materials prepared via this ‘one-pot’ synthetic route have been shown to give shape-selective catalysts for reactions such as the selective catalytic reduction of NO x with ammonia and the hydrogenation, dehydration and oxidative dehydrogenation of small hydrocarbons and oxygenates.


Catalysts Metal complexes One-pot synthesis Structure-directing agents Templates Zeolites Zeotypes 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abigail E. Watts
    • 1
  • Alessandro Turrina
    • 2
  • Paul A. Wright
    • 1
  1. 1.EaStCHEM School of ChemistryUniversity of St AndrewsSt AndrewsUK
  2. 2.Johnson Matthey Technology CentreBillinghamUK

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