Luminescent Lanthanide Metal–Organic Frameworks

  • Xue-Zhi Song
  • Shu-Yan SongEmail author
  • Hong-Jie ZhangEmail author
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 163)


More and more attention has been paid to the design and synthesis of the lanthanide metal–organic frameworks (LnMOFs). Their physicochemical properties were investigated deeply, especially in terms of the luminescent properties. Lanthanide ions, used as luminescence centers, in MOFs enable tuning options that exceed all other metals of the periodic table of the elements. This chapter explains the basic principles of lanthanide luminescence in advance, which will help the readers to understand the luminescent properties of the subsequent LnMOFs. Single-Ln3+ LnMOFs show fundamental luminescent phenomenon and law. Furthermore, mixed-Ln3+ LnMOFs exhibit significant ability of tunable white light emission and temperature measurement. Representative publication of LnMOFs with NIR luminescence and upconversion luminescence is also important to discuss here. Furthermore, bulk LnMOFs have been scaled down to the nanoregime to form nanoscale LnMOFs, which will enable their use in a broad range of applications, including drug delivery, bioimaging, and molecular sense.


Lanthanide metal–organic frameworks NIR luminescence Upconversion luminescence Visible luminescence White light emission 















Coordination polymers


Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide












Dipicolinic acid




Benzimidazole-5,6-dicarboxylic acid


3,3-(4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid


4,4-Oxybis(benzoic acid)


Oxalic acid


5-(Pyridin-4-yl)isophthalic acid


4,4-[(2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-phenylene)di-2,1-ethenediyl]bisbenzoic acid


Biphenyl-3,4,5-tricarboxylic acid


5-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid


3,5-Disulfobenzoic acid


4,4-((2-((4-Carboxyphenoxy)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid


N-phenyl-N′-phenyl bicyclo[2,2,2]-oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxdiimide tetracarboxylic acid


Methylenediisophthalic acid


Pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid


p-Terphenyl-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid




3,5-Bis(1-methoxy-3,5-benzene dicarboxylic acid)benzoic acid


4-(Dipyridin-2-yl)aminobenzoic acid




Lanthanide metal–organic frameworks




Metal–organic frameworks


Magnetic resonance imaging


Near infrared


Nanoscale metal–organic frameworks




Tetrafluoroterephthalate or 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate









The authors are grateful to the financial aid from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91122030, 21210001, 21221061, and 51372242) and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB643802).


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunP.R. China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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