Rare-Earth Metal Postmetallocene Catalysts with Chelating Amido Ligands

  • Tianshu Li
  • Jelena Jenter
  • Peter W. RoeskyEmail author
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 137)


This review deals with the synthesis and the catalytic application of noncyclopentadienyl complexes of the rare-earth elements. The main topics of the review are amido metal complexes with chelating bidentate ligands, which show the most similarities to cyclopentadienyl ligands. Benzamidinates and guanidinates will be reviewed in a separate contribution within this book. Beside the synthesis of the complexes, the broad potential of these compounds in homogeneous catalysis is demonstrated. Most of the reviewed catalytic transformations are either C–C multiple bond transformation such as the hydroamination and hydrosilylation or polymerization reaction of polar and nonpolar monomers. In this area, butadiene and isoprene, ethylene, as well as lactides and lactones were mostly used as monomers.


Amido ligands Chelates Homogeneous catalysis Rare-earth metals 









Cyclohexene oxide






Cyclopentadienyl, η5-C5H5


















Rare-earth metal






Methyl methacrylate


Modified methylalumoxane


Nuclear magnetic resonance






Poly(methyl methacrylate)




Ring-opening polymerization




Solvent-separated ion pair









We thank the DFG (SPP 1166 “Lanthanide specific functionalities in molecules and materials”) for financial support of our work related to the topic of this contribution.


  1. 1.
    Watson PL, Parshall GW (2002) Acc Chem Res 18:51Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edelmann FT (1996) Top Curr Chem 179:113Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Evans WJ, Bloom I, Hunter WE, Atwood JL (1983) J Am Chem Soc 103:1401Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jeske G, Lauke H, Mauermann H, Schumann H, Marks TJ (1985) J Am Chem Soc 107:8111Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harrison KN, Marks TJ (1992) J Am Chem Soc 114:9220Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bijpost EA, Duchateau R, Teuben JH (1995) J Mol Catal 95:121Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gagné MR, Marks TJ (2002) J Am Chem Soc 111:4108Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arredondo VM, McDonald FE, Marks TJ (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:4871Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fu P-F, Brard L, Li Y, Marks TJ (2002) J Am Chem Soc 117:7157Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castillo I, Tilley TD (2000) Organometallics 19:4733Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Molander GA, Winterfeld J (1996) J Organomet Chem 524:275Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schumann H, Keitsch MR, Winterfeld J, Mühle S, Molander GA (1998) J Organomet Chem 559:181Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Edelmann FT (2007) In: Crabtree RH, Mingos DMP (eds) Comprehensive organometallic chemisty III, Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schumann H (1984) Angew Chem Int Ed 96:475Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Edelmann FT (1996) Top Curr Chem 179:247Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edelmann FT (1995) Angew Chem Int Ed 34:2466Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Edelmann FT, Freckmann DMM, Schumann H (2002) Chem Rev 102:1851Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bryliakov KP (2007) Russ Chem Rev 76:253Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Busico V, Cipullo R, Romanelli V, Ronca S, Togrou M (2005) J Am Chem Soc 127:1608Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Trifonov AA, Skvortsov GG, Lyubov DM, Skorodumova NA, Fukin GK, Baranov EV, Glushakova VN (2006) Chem Eur J 12:5320Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Britovsek GJP, Gibson VC, Wass DF (1999) Angew Chem Int Ed 38:428Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bradley DC, Ghotra JS, Hart FA (1973) J Chem Soc Dalton Trans 1021Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bradley DC, Ghotra JS, Hart FA (1972) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 349Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alyea EC, Bradley DC, Copperthwaite RG (1972) J Chem Soc Dalton Trans 1580Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Edelmann FT (2008) Adv Organomet Chem 57:183Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Edelmann FT (2009) Chem Soc Rev 38:2253Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kempe R (2000) Angew Chem Int Ed 39:468Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Piers WE, Emslie DJH (2002) Coord Chem Rev 233–234:131Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kempe R, Noss H, Irrgang T (2002) J Organomet Chem 647:12Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kempe R, Oberthür M, Hillebrand G, Spannenberg A, Fuhrmann H (1998) Polimery (Warsaw) 43:96Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schareina T, Kempe R (2002) Synth Methods Organomet Inorg Chem 10:1Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kempe R (2003) Eur J Inorg Chem 791Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deeken S, Motz G, Kempe R (2007) Z Anorg Allg Chem 633:320Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spannenberg A, Arndt P, Kempe R (1998) Angew Chem Int Ed 37:832Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Glatz G, Demeshko S, Motz G, Kempe R (2009) Eur J Inorg Chem: 1385Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baldamus J, Cole ML, Helmstedt U, Hey-Hawkins E-M, Jones C, Junk PC, Lange F, Smithies NA (2003) J Organomet Chem 665:33Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cole ML, Junk PC (2003) New J Chem 27:1032Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Scott NM, Schareina T, Tok O, Kempe R (2004) Eur J Inorg Chem: 3297Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scott NM, Kempe R (2005) Eur J Inorg Chem: 1319Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kretschmer WP, Meetsma A, Hessen B, Schmalz T, Qayyum S, Kempe R (2006) Chem Eur J 12:8969Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Döring C, Kempe R (2009) Eur J Inorg Chem: 412Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Skvortsov GG, Fukin GK, Trifonov AA, Noor A, Döring C, Kempe R (2007) Organometallics 26:5770Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guillaume SM, Schappacher M, Scott NM, Kempe R (2007) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 45:3611Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kretschmer WP, Meetsma A, Hessen B, Scott NM, Qayyum S, Kempe R (2006) Z Anorg Allg Chem 632:1936Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mashima K, Tsurugi H (2005) J Organomet Chem 690:4414Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Matsuo Y, Mashima K, Tani K (2001) Organometallics 20:3510Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cui C, Shafir A, Reeder CL, Arnold J (2003) Organometallics 22:3357Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yang Y, Li S, Cui D, Chen X, Jing X (2007) Organometallics 26:671Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yang Y, Liu B, Lv K, Gao W, Cui D, Chen X, Jing X (2007) Organometallics 26:4575Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yang Y, Wang Q, Cui D (2008) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 46:5251Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hayes PG, Welch GC, Emslie DJH, Noack CL, Piers WE, Parvez M (2003) Organometallics 22:1577Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Conroy KD, Piers WE, Parvez M (2008) J Organomet Chem 693:834Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Liu B, Cui D, Ma J, Chen X, Jing X (2007) Chem Eur J 13:834Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang D, Li S, Liu X, Gao W, Cui D (2008) Organometallics 27:6531Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bourget-Merle L, Lappert MF, Severn JR (2002) Chem Rev 102:3031Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hitchcock PB, Khvostov AV, Lappert MF, Protchenko AV (2009) Dalton Trans 2383Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hitchcock PB, Hulkes AG, Khvostov AV, Lappert MF, Protchenko AV (2003) Spec Publ R Soc Chem 287:86Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lappert MF (2000) J Organomet Chem 600:144Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hitchcock PB, Hu J, Lappert MF, Layh M, Liu D-S, Severn JR, Shun T (1996) An Quim Int Ed 92:186Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zeimentz PM, Arndt S, Elvidge BR, Okuda J (2006) Chem Rev 106:2404Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arndt S, Okuda J (2005) Adv Synth Catal 347:339Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cassani CM, Gun’ko YK, Hitchcock PB, Hulkes AG, Khvostov AV, Lappert MF, Protchenko AV (2002) J Organomet Chem 647:71Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hitchcock PB, Holmes SA, Lappert MF, Tian S (1994) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 2691Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Drees D, Magull J (1994) Z Anorg Allg Chem 620:814Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hitchcock PB, Lappert MF, Tian S (1997) J Chem Soc Dalton Trans 1945Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Avent AG, Hitchcock PB, Khvostov AV, Lappert MF, Protchenko AV (2003) Dalton Trans 1070Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Drees D, Magull J (1995) Z Anorg Allg Chem 621:948Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rahim M, Taylor NJ, Xin S, Collins S (1998) Organometallics 17:1315Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vollmerhaus R, Rahim M, Tomaszewski R, Xin S, Taylor NJ, Collins S (2000) Organometallics 19:2161Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Moore DR, Cheng M, Lobkovsky EB, Coates GW (2002) Angew Chem Int Ed 41:2599Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vitanova DV, Hampel F, Hultzsch KC (2005) J Organomet Chem 690:5182Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lazarov BB, Hampel F, Hultzsch KC (2007) Z Anorg Allg Chem 633:2367Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zhang Z, Cui D, Liu X (2008) J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 46:6810Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Xue M, Yao Y, Shen Q, Zhang Y (2005) J Organomet Chem 690:4685Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yao Y, Zhang Y, Shen Q, Yu K (2002) Organometallics 21:819Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yao Y, Zhang Z, Peng H, Zhang Y, Shen Q, Lin J (2006) Inorg Chem 45:2175Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sanchez-Barba LF, Hughes DL, Humphrey SM, Bochmann M (2005) Organometallics 24:3792Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wei X, Cheng Y, Hitchcock PB, Lappert MF (2008) Dalton Trans 5235Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hitchcock PB, Lappert MF, Protchenko AV (2005) Chem Commun 951Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee LWM, Piers WE, Elsegood MRJ, Clegg W, Parvez M (1999) Organometallics 18:2947Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hayes PG, Piers WE, McDonald R (2002) J Am Chem Soc 124:2132Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lauterwasser F, Hayes PG, Bräse S, Piers WE, Schafer LL (2004) Organometallics 23:2234Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hayes PG, Piers WE, Parvez M (2005) Organometallics 24:1173Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hayes PG, Piers WE, Parvez M (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:5622Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hayes PG, Piers WE, Parvez M (2007) Chem Eur J 13:2632Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Xue M, Jiao R, Zhang Y, Yao Y, Shen Q (2009) Eur J Inorg Chem 4110Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gamer MT, Canseco-Melchor G, Roesky PW (2003) Z Anorg Allg Chem 629:2113Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gamer MT, Roesky PW (2004) Inorg Chem 43:4903Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Roesky PW, Gamer MT, Marinos N (2004) Chem Eur J 10:3537Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Roesky PW, Gamer MT, Puchner M, Greiner A (2002) Chem Eur J 8:5265Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Recknagel A, Steiner A, Noltemeyer M, Brooker S, Stalke D, Edelmann FT (1991) J Organomet Chem 414:327Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reißmann U, Poremba P, Noltemeyer M, Schmidt H-G, Edelmann FT (2000) Inorg Chim Acta 303:156Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wetzel TG, Dehnen S, Roesky PW (1999) Angew Chem 111:1155Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wingerter S, Pfeiffer M, Baier F, Stey T, Stalke D (2000) Z Anorg Allg Chem 626:1121Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Panda TK, Zulys A, Gamer MT, Roesky PW (2005) J Organomet Chem 690:5078Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Panda TK, Zulys A, Gamer MT, Roesky PW (2005) Organometallics 24:2197Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Roesky PW (2006) Z Anorg Allg Chem 632:1918Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wiecko M, Roesky PW, Burlakov VV, Spannenberg A (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 876Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gamer MT, Rastätter M, Roesky PW, Steffens A, Glanz M (2005) Chem Eur J 11:3165Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Aparna K, Ferguson M, Cavell RG (2000) J Am Chem Soc 122:726Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cavell RG, Kamalesh Babu RP, Aparna K (2001) J Organomet Chem 617–618:158Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Panda TK, Roesky PW (2009) Chem Soc Rev 38:2782Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Gamer MT, Roesky PW (2001) Z Anorg Allg Chem 627:877Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gamer MT, Dehnen S, Roesky PW (2001) Organometallics 20:4230Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rastätter M, Zulys A, Roesky PW (2006) Chem Commun 874Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rastätter M, Zulys A, Roesky PW (2007) Chem Eur J 13:3606Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Anwander R, Runte O, Eppinger J, Gerstberger G, Herdtweck E, Spiegler M (1998) J Chem Soc, Dalton Trans 847Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Giardello MA, Conticello VP, Brard L, Gagné MR, Marks TJ (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:10241Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mashima K, Nakayama Y, Nakamura A, Kanehisa N, Kai Y, Takaya H (1994) J Organomet Chem 473:85Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hong S, Marks TJ (2004) Acc Chem. Res 37:673Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gröb T, Seybert G, Massa W, Weller F, Palaniswami R, Greiner A, Dehnicke K (2000) Angew Chem 112:4542Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ravi P, Gröb T, Dehnicke K, Greiner A (2001) Macromolecules 34:8649Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Evans WJ, Katsumata H (1994) Macromolecules 27:2330Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Agarwal S, Brandukova-Szmikowski NE, Greiner A (1999) Macromol Rap Commun 20:274Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cui D, Tang T, Cheng J, Hu N, Chen W, Huang B (2002) J Organomet Chem 650:84Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gagné MR, Nolan SP, Marks TJ (1990) Organometallics 9:1716Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Roesky PW (1997) Chem Ber/Recl 130:859Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Roesky PW (2000) Chem Soc Rev 29:335Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Roesky PW (2003) Z Anorg Allg Chem 629:1881Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Meyer N, Zulys A, Roesky PW (2006) Organometallics 25:4179Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Meyer N, Roesky PW (2007) Dalton Trans 2652Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Meyer N, Roesky PW (2009) Organometallics 28:306Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Franz KJ, Doerrer LH, Spingler B, Lippard SJ (2001) Inorg Chem 40:3774Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Franz KJ, Lippard SJ (2000) Inorg Chem 39:3722Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Franz KJ, Lippard SJ (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:9034Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bürgstein MR, Berberich H, Roesky PW (1998) Organometallics 17:1452Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Den Haan KH, De Boer JL, Teuben JH, Spek AL, Kojic-Prodic B, Hays GR, Huis R (1986) Organometallics 5:1726Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gagné MR, Stern CL, Marks TJ (1992) J Am Chem Soc 114:275Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Datta S, Gamer MT, Roesky PW (2008) Organometallics 27:1207Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Datta S, Roesky PW, Blechert S (2007) Organometallics 26:4392Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Dagorne S, Bellemin-Laponnaz S, Maisse-François A (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 913Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Görlitzer HW, Spiegler M, Anwander R (1999) J Chem Soc, Dalton Trans 4287Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gerstberger G, Anwander R (2001) Microporous Mesoporous Mater 44–45:303Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Alaaeddine A, Amgoune A, Thomas CM, Dagorne S, Bellemin-Laponnaz S, Carpentier J-F (2006) Eur J Inorg Chem 3652Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hong S, Tian S, Metz MV, Marks TJ (2003) J Am Chem Soc 125:14768Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Gagné MR, Brard L, Conticello VP, Giardello MA, Stern CL, Marks TJ (1992) Organometallics 11:2003Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    van der Linden A, Schaverien CJ, Meijboom N, Ganter C, Orpen AG (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:3008Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Duchateau R, van Wee CT, Teuben JH (1996) Organometallics 15:2291Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Duchateau R, van Wee CT, Meetsma A, van Duijnen PT, Teuben JH (1996) Organometallics 15:2279Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Duchateau R, Tuinstra T, Brussee EAC, Meetsma A, van Duijnen PT, Teuben JH (1997) Organometallics 16:3511Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Duchateau R, Brussee EAC, Meetsma A, Teuben JH (1997) Organometallics 16:5506Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Baumann R, Davis WM, Schrock RR (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:3830Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Scollard JD, McConville DH, Vittal JJ (1995) Organometallics 14:5478Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Scollard JD, McConville DH, Payne NC, Vittal JJ (1996) Macromolecules 29:5241Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Long DP, Bianconi PA (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:12453Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Horton AD, de With J, van der Linden AJ, van de Weg H (1996) Organometallics 15:2672Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Guerin F, McConville DH, Payne NC (1996) Organometallics 15:5085Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Zi G (2009) Dalton Trans 9101Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Konkol M, Okuda J (2008) Coord Chem Rev 252:1577Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gountchev TI, Tilley TD (1999) Organometallics 18:2896Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gountchev TI, Tilley TD (1999) Organometallics 18:5661Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Giardello MA, Conticello VP, Brard L, Sabat M, Rheingold AL, Stern CL, Marks TJ (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:10212Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kim YK, Livinghouse T, Bercaw JE (2001) Tetrahedron Lett 42:2933Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Aillaud I, Collin J, Hannedouche J, Schulz E (2007) Dalton Trans 5105Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hultzsch KC (2005) Org Biomol Chem 3:1819Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kim H, Livinghouse T, Shim JH, Lee SG, Lee PH (2006) Adv Synth Catal 348:701Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kim JY, Livinghouse T (2005) Org Lett 7:4391Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kim YK, Livinghouse T (2002) Angew Chem, Int Ed 41:3645Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    O’Shaughnessy PN, Scott P (2003) Tetrahedron Asymmetry 14:1979Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Aillaud I, Wright K, Collin J, Schulz E, Mazaleyrat J-P (2008) Tetrahedron Asymmetry 19:82Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Aillaud I, Collin J, Duhayon C, Guillot R, Lyubov D, Schulz E, Trifonov A (2008) Chem Eur J 14:2189Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Riegert D, Collin J, Daran J-C, Fillebeen T, Schulz E, Lyubov D, Fukin G, Trifonov A (2007) Eur J Inorg Chem 1159Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Riegert D, Collin J, Meddour A, Schulz E, Trifonov A (2006) J Org Chem 71:2514Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Collin J, Daran J-C, Jacquet O, Schulz E, Trifonov A (2005) Chem Eur J 11:3455Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Aillaud I, Lyubov D, Collin J, Guillot R, Hannedouche J, Schulz E, Trifonov A (2008) Organometallics 27:5929Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Zhou L, Yao Y, Li C, Zhang Y, Shen Q (2006) Organometallics 25:2880Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Wu Y, Wang S, Zhu X, Yang G, Wei Y, Zhang L, Song H-b (2008) Inorg Chem 47:5503Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Schranz I, Stahl L, Staples RJ (1998) Inorg Chem 37:1493Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Schranz I, Moser DF, Stahl L, Staples RJ (1999) Inorg Chem 38:5814Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Stahl L (2000) Coord Chem Rev 210:203Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Balakrishna MS, Reddy VS, Krishnamurthy SS, Nixon JF, Burckett St Laurent JCTR (1994) Coord Chem Rev 129:1Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Balakrishna MS, Chandrasekaran P, Venkateswaran R (2007) J Organomet Chem 692:2642Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Holmes RR (1961) J Am Chem Soc 83:1334Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hill TG, Haltiwanger RC, Thompson ML, Katz SA, Norman AD (1994) Inorg Chem 33:1770Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Grocholl L, Stahl L, Staples RJ (1997) Chem Commun 1465Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Moser DF, Carrow CJ, Stahl L, Staples RJ (2001) J Chem Soc, Dalton Trans 1246Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Axenov KV, Klinga M, Leskela M, Repo T (2005) Organometallics 24:1336Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Axenov KV, Klinga M, Leskelae M, Kotov V, Repo T (2004) Eur J Inorg Chem 4702Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Axenov KV, Kotov VV, Klinga M, Leskelae M, Repo T (2004) Eur J Inorg Chem 695Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Moser DF, Grocholl L, Stahl L, Staples RJ (2003) Dalton Trans 1402Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Rastätter M, Muterle RB, Roesky PW, Thiele SK-H (2009) Chem Eur J 15:474Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Taube R, Sylvester G (1996) In: Cornils B, Herrmann WA (eds) Applied homogeneous catalysis with organometallic compounds, VCH, Weinheim, Germany, p 280Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wilson DJ (1996) Polym Int 39:235Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Witte J (1981) Angew Makromol Chem 94:119Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Anorganische ChemieKarlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)KarlsruheGermany

Personalised recommendations