Polymerization of 1,3-Conjugated Dienes with Rare-Earth Metal Precursors

  • Zhichao Zhang
  • Dongmei CuiEmail author
  • Baoli Wang
  • Bo Liu
  • Yi Yang
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 137)


This chapter surveys the publications except patents related to cis-1,4-, trans-1,4-, 3,4-regio-, and stereoselective polymerizations of 1,3-conjugated dienes with rare-earth metal-based catalytic systems during the past decade from 1999 to 2009. The concerned catalyst systems are classified into the conventional Ziegler–Natta catalysts, the modified Ziegler–Natta catalysts, and the single-site cationic systems composed of lanthanocene and noncyclopentadienyl precursors, respectively. For the conventional Ziegler–Natta catalysts of the most promising industry applicable recipe, the multicomponents based on lanthanide carboxylate or phosphate or alkoxide precursors, research works concern mainly about optimizing the catalyst preparation and polymerization techniques. Special emphases are put on the factors that influence the catalyst homogeneority, catalytic activity and efficiency, as well as cis-1,4-selectivity. Meanwhile, tailor-made lanthanide aryloxide and amide complexes are designed and fully characterized to mimic the conventional Ziegler–Natta catalysts, anticipated to elucidate the key processes, alkylation and cationization, for generating the active species. Regarding to the single-site catalytic systems generally comprising well-defined complexes containing lanthanide–carbon bonds, investigations cover their versatile catalytic activity and efficiency, and the distinguished regio- and stereoselectivity for both polymerization of dienes and copolymerization of dienes with alkenes. The correlation between the sterics and electronics of ligands and the molecular structures of the complexes and their catalytic performances are highlighted. The isolation of the probable active species in these polymerization processes from the stoichiometric reactions of the precursors with activators will be presented.


Diene polymerization Metallocene Rare-earth metals Specific polymerization Ziegler–Natta 







Polybutadiene rubber




Coordination number








Diisobutylaluminum chloride


Diisobutylaluminum hydride


Dimethylaluminum chloride






Dimethyl sulfoxide


Ethylaluminum sesquichloride








Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
















Polyisoprene rubber




Rare-earth metal (i.e., Sc, Y, La–Lu)










Methyl methacrylate


Modified methylaluminoxane




Neodecanoic acid


Neodymium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate


Neodymium versatate


N-heterocyclic carbene


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Natural rubber












Room temperature


Styrene–butadiene rubbers


Size exclusion chromatography


















Turnover number


Variable temperature


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhichao Zhang
    • 1
  • Dongmei Cui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Baoli Wang
    • 1
  • Bo Liu
    • 1
  • Yi Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunChina

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