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Polymerization of 1,3-Conjugated Dienes with Rare-Earth Metal Precursors

  • Zhichao Zhang
  • Dongmei CuiEmail author
  • Baoli Wang
  • Bo Liu
  • Yi Yang
Chapter
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 137)

Abstract

This chapter surveys the publications except patents related to cis-1,4-, trans-1,4-, 3,4-regio-, and stereoselective polymerizations of 1,3-conjugated dienes with rare-earth metal-based catalytic systems during the past decade from 1999 to 2009. The concerned catalyst systems are classified into the conventional Ziegler–Natta catalysts, the modified Ziegler–Natta catalysts, and the single-site cationic systems composed of lanthanocene and noncyclopentadienyl precursors, respectively. For the conventional Ziegler–Natta catalysts of the most promising industry applicable recipe, the multicomponents based on lanthanide carboxylate or phosphate or alkoxide precursors, research works concern mainly about optimizing the catalyst preparation and polymerization techniques. Special emphases are put on the factors that influence the catalyst homogeneority, catalytic activity and efficiency, as well as cis-1,4-selectivity. Meanwhile, tailor-made lanthanide aryloxide and amide complexes are designed and fully characterized to mimic the conventional Ziegler–Natta catalysts, anticipated to elucidate the key processes, alkylation and cationization, for generating the active species. Regarding to the single-site catalytic systems generally comprising well-defined complexes containing lanthanide–carbon bonds, investigations cover their versatile catalytic activity and efficiency, and the distinguished regio- and stereoselectivity for both polymerization of dienes and copolymerization of dienes with alkenes. The correlation between the sterics and electronics of ligands and the molecular structures of the complexes and their catalytic performances are highlighted. The isolation of the probable active species in these polymerization processes from the stoichiometric reactions of the precursors with activators will be presented.

Keywords

Diene polymerization Metallocene Rare-earth metals Specific polymerization Ziegler–Natta 

Abbreviations

Ar

Aryl

BD

Butadiene

BR

Polybutadiene rubber

Bu

Butyl

CN

Coordination number

cot

Cyclooctatetraene

Cp

Cyclopentadienyl

d

Day(s)

DIBAC

Diisobutylaluminum chloride

DIBAH

Diisobutylaluminum hydride

DMAC

Dimethylaluminum chloride

DME

Dimethoxyethane

DMPE

1,2-Bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

EASC

Ethylaluminum sesquichloride

equiv

Equivalent(s)

Et

Ethyl

Flu

Fluorenyl

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

h

Hour(s)

Hex

Hexyl

HIBAO

Hexaisobutylaluminoxane

iBu

Isobutyl

Ind

Indenyl

IP

Isoprene

iPr

Isopropyl

IR

Polyisoprene rubber

L

Liter(s)

Ln

Rare-earth metal (i.e., Sc, Y, La–Lu)

MAO

Methylaluminoxane

Me

Methyl

Mes

Mesityl

min

Minute(s)

MMA

Methyl methacrylate

MMAO

Modified methylaluminoxane

ND

Neodecanoate

NDH

Neodecanoic acid

NdP

Neodymium bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate

NdV

Neodymium versatate

NHC

N-heterocyclic carbene

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NR

Natural rubber

Oct

Octyl

Ph

Phenyl

Phen

1,10-Phenanthroline

Pr

Propyl

Py

Pyridine

RT

Room temperature

SBR

Styrene–butadiene rubbers

SEC

Size exclusion chromatography

TBP

Tributylphosphate

tBu

Tertbutyl

TEA

Triethylaluminum

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

TIBA

Triisobutylaluminum

TMA

Trimethylaluminum

TNHA

Tri(n-hexyl)aluminum

TNOA

Tri(n-octyl)aluminum

TON

Turnover number

VT

Variable temperature

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhichao Zhang
    • 1
  • Dongmei Cui
    • 1
    Email author
  • Baoli Wang
    • 1
  • Bo Liu
    • 1
  • Yi Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunChina

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