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Structural Aspects of Layered Double Hydroxides

  • David G. EvansEmail author
  • Robert C. T. SladeEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 119)

Abstract

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been known for a considerable time and have been widely studied. The basic features of their structure, involving positively charged brucite-like layers together with charge-balancing anions and water in interlayer galleries are well understood, but some detailed aspects of their structure have been the subject of controversy in the literature. In this article we review the wide range of experimental and theoretical studies of the structure of LDHs, highlighting areas of consensus and currently unresolved issues. We focus on the range of composition for which LDHs may be formed, possible layer stacking polytypes, arrangement of guest species in the interlayer galleries and the extent of order-disorder phenomena, both long-range and short-range, in the layers and interlayer galleries.

Layered double hydroxide Hydrotalcite Structure Diffraction Polytype Order-disorder 

Abbreviations

AEC

Anion exchange capacity

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

AQ15

Anthraquinone-1,5-disulfonate

AQ2

Anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

AQ26

Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate

BPC

p-Benzoylbenzoate

CSC

4′-chloro-4-stilbenecarboxylic acid

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EDAX

Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays

EXAFS

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure

HH

Head-to-head

HT

Head-to-tail

ICP

Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry

IP

Image plate

IR

Infrared

JCPDS

Joint committee on powder diffraction standards

LB

Langmuir-Blodgett

LDH

Layered double hydroxide

MBSA

5-Benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzenesulfonic acid

NEXAFS

Near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (synonym for XANES)

NHA

4-Nitrohippuric acid

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

SAED

Selected area electron diffraction

STEM

Scanning transmission electron microscopy

STM

Scanning tunneling microscopy

UV

Ultraviolet

XAS

X-ray absorption spectroscopy

XANES

X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

XRD

X-ray diffraction

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Controllable Chemical ReactionsBeijing University of Chemical TechnologyBeijingP.R. China
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK

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