Advertisement

The nature of lignocellulosics and their pretreatments for enzymatic hydrolysis

  • L. T. Fan
  • Young-Hyun Lee
  • M. M. Gharpuray
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering book series (ABE, volume 23)

Abstract

The imminent shortage of fossil fuels and their skyrocketing prices have intensified research for bioconversion of lignocellulosics to fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and low cost energy resource and is available in vast amounts. Enzymatic hydrolysis of native lignocellulosics is prohibitively slow so that it is difficult to develop an economically viable process; therefore, pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to enhance the susceptibility of lignocellulosic residues to enzyme action. This review encompasses the nature of lignocellulosic materials, the nature of lignocellulosic structural resistance to enzymatic attack, and various pretreatment methods and their mechanisms.

Keywords

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Wheat Straw Rice Straw Corn Stover Chemical Pretreatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

6 References

  1. 1.
    Ander, P., Eriksson, K. E.: In: Progress in Ind. Microbiol. Vol. 14, M. J. Bull (Ed.), p. 1. New York: Elsevier 1978Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, A. W., Han, Y. W.: NSF-RA-770278, Non Conventional Protein Food Processing Conference, PB-283965, p. 202, 1977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, D. C, Ralston, A. T.: J. Anim. Sci. 37 (1), 148 (1973)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andren, R. K., Erickson, R. J., Medeiros, J. E.: In: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 6, E. L. Gaden Jr. et al. (Eds.), p. 177. New York: Interscience 1976Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andren, R. K., Mandels, M. H., Medeiros, J. E.: In: Appl. Poly. Symp. No. 28, T. E. Timell (Ed.), p. 205. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andren, R. K., Nystrom, J. M: AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 158, Vol. 72, 91 (1976)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    April, G. C. et al.: Presented at the 89th AIChE Nat. Meet. Portland, Oregon, Aug. 17–20, 1980Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arthur, Jr., J. C.: In: Energetics and Mechanisms in Radiation Biology, G. O. Phillips (Ed.), New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Autrey, K. M., McCaskey, T. A., Little, J. A.: J. Dairy Sci. 58 (1), 67 (1975)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baker, A. J.: J. Anim. Sci. 36 (4), 768 (1973)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Batsawde, K. B. et al.: In: Bioconversion of Cellulosic Substances into Energy Chemicals and Microbial Protein Symp. Proa, T. K. Ghose (Ed.), p. 387. New Delhi: IIT Delhi 1978Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bender, F., Heaney, D. P., Bowden, A.: Forest Prod. J. 20, 36 (1970)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bowers, G. H., April, G. C: TAPPI 60 (8), 102 (1977)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Blouin, F. A., Arthur, Jr., J. C: J. Chem. Eng. Data 5, 470 (1960)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brenner, W. et al.: In: New Approaches for the Acid Hydrolysis of Cellulose, Dept. of Appl. Sci., New York Univ., NYU/DAS-77-30, New York 1977Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borrevik, R. K., Wilke, C. R., Brink, D. L.: In: Effect of Nitrogen Oxide Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Ca. LBL 7879, Sept. 1978Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brink, D. L.: U.S. Pat. 4,076,579, Feb. 1978Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brink, D. L. etal.: In: Abstracts of Papers of the 167th Amer. Chem. Soc. Meet., Los Angeles Ca. March 31–April 5, 1974Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Browning, B. L.: In: Handbook of Pulp and Paper Technology, 2nd Ed. K. W. Britt (ed.), p. 7. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold 1970Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Casey, J. P.: In: Pulp and Paper, 2nd Ed., Vol. 1, New York: Interscience 1960Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Casey, J. P.: In: Pulp and Paper, 2nd Ed., Vol. 1, p. 399. New York: Interscience 1960Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chandra, S., Jackson, M. G.: J. Agr. Sci. Camb. 77, 11 (1971)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chang, M.: J. Polym. Sci.: Part C, No. 36, 343 (1971)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Clarke, S. D., Dyer, I. A.: J. Anim. Sci. 37. 1022 (1973)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cowling, E. B., Kirk, T. K.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 6, E. L. Gaden Jr. et al. (Eds.), p. 163. New York: Interscience 1976Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cowling, E. B.: In: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 163. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cysewski, G. R., Wilke, C. R.: Biotech. Bioeng. 18, 1297 (1976)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Datta, R.: Presented at AIChE/73rd Annual Meet., Chicago, Nov. 16–20, 1980Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dehority, B. A., Johnson, J. J.: J. Dairy Sci. 44, 2242 (1961)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Detroy, R. W. et al.: In: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 10, C. D. Scott (Ed.), p. 135. New York: Interscience 1980Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Donefer, E., Adeleye, I. O. A., Jones, T. A. O. C.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., G. J. Hajny, E. T. Reese (Eds.), 95, p. 328, Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dunlap, C. E., Thomson, J., Chiang, L. C: AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 158, Vol. 72, p. 58, 1976Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dunlap, C. E., Chiang, L. C: In: Cellulose Degradation — A Common Link, M. C. Shuler (Ec), C.R.C. Press 1980Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dunning, J. W., Lathrop, E. C: Ind. Eng. Chem. 37, 24 (1945)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Elmund, G. K., Grant, D. W., Morrison, S. M.: In: Management of Livestock Wastes, Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Livestock Wastes, p. 275, A.S.A.E. Publication, 1975Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eriksson, K. E., Goodell, E. W.: Can. J. Microbiol. 20, 371 (1974)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eriksson, K. E.: In: Bioconversion of Cellulosic Substrates into Energy Chemicals and Microbial Protein Symp. Proc, T. K. Ghose (Ed.), p. 195. New Delhi: IIT Delhi 1978Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fan, L. T., Lee, Y. H., Beardmore, D. H.: Presented at IInd Int. Symp. on Bioconv. and Biochem. Eng., IIT, Delhi, India, March 3–6, 1980Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fan, L. T., Lee, Y. H., Beardmore, D. H.: Biotech. Bioeng. 22, 177 (1980)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fan, L. T., Lee, Y. H., Beardmore, D. H.: In: Adv. Biochem. Eng. Vol. 14, A. Fiechter (Ed.), p. 101, Berlin: Springer 1980Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fan, L. T., Lee, Y. H., Beardmore, D. H.: Biotech. Bioeng. 23, 419 (1981)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fan, L. T., Gharpuray, M. M., Lee, Y. H.: Presented at 3rd Symp. on Biotech, in Energy Production and Conservation, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, May 12–15, 1981Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Feist, W. C, Baker, A. J., Tarkow, H.: J. Ani. Sci. 30, 832 (1970)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ferguson, W. S.: Biochem. J. 36, 786 (1942)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ferguson, W. S.: J. Agr. Sci. 33, 174 (1943)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Forss, K., Fremer, K. E.: In: Symp. on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose, M. Bailey et al. (Eds.), p. 41. Helsinki: SITRA 1975Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ghose, T. K.: Biotech. Bioeng. 11. 239 (1969)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ghose, T. K.: In: Adv. Biochem. Eng. Vol. 6, T. K. Ghose, A. Fiechter, N. Blakebrough (Eds.), p. 39. Berlin: Springer 1977Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ghose, T. K., Kostick, J. A.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., G. J. Hajny, E. T. Reese (Eds.), 95, p. 415, Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Glegg, R. E., Kertesz, Z. I.: J. Poly. Sci. 26. 289 (1957)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Godden, W.: J. Agr. Sci. 10, 437 (1920)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guggolz, J. R., Kohler, G. O., Klopfenstein, T. J.: J. Anim. Sci. 33, 151 (1971)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Guggolz, J. R. et al.: J. Anim. Sci. 33, 167 (1971)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hale, J. D.: In: The Pulping of Wood, 2nd Ed. R. G. MacDonald (Ed.), Vol. 1, p. 14. New York: McGraw Hill 1969Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hall, J. A., Saeman, J. F., Harris, J. F.: Unasylva 10, 7 (1956)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Halliwell, G.: In: Bioconversion of Cellulosic Substrates into Energy Chemicals and Microbial Protein, T. K. Ghose (Ed.), p. 81. New Delhi: IIT Delhi 1977Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Han, Y. W., Callihan, C. D.: Appl. Microbiol. 27, 159 (1974)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Han, Y. W., Chen, W. P.: Biotech. Bioeng. 20, 567 (1978)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Han, Y. W., Pence, J. W., Anderson, A. W.: Appl. Microbiol. 29, 708 (1975)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Han, Y. W., Lee, J. S., Anderson, A. W.: J. Agr. Food Chem. 23, 928 (1975)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hansen, S. M., April, G. C: Biosources Digest 3 (1), Jan. 1981Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Harris, E. E. et al.: U.S. Dept. Agr. Forest Serv. Rep. 1618, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Heaney, D. C, Bender, F.: Forest Prod. J. 20, 98 (1970)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Howsmon, J. A., Marchessault, R. H.: J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 1, 313 (1959)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hsu, T. A., Ladisch, M. R., Tsao, G. T.: Chemtech, May 1980Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Huffman, J. G., Kitts, W. D., Krishnamurthi, C. R.: Can. J. Anim. Sci. 51, 457 (1971)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Israilides, C. J., Grant, G. A., Han, Y. W.: Develop. Ind. Microbiol., 20, 603 (1979)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Janes, R. L.: In: The Pulping of Wood, R. G. MacDonald (Ed.), 2nd Ed. Vol. 1, p. 34. New York:McGraw Hill 1969Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jones, R. P., Greenfield, P. F., Nicklin, D. J.: Cellulose Hydrolysis, State of the Art and Near Term Potential, a report submitted to the Queensland Dept. of Commercial and Industrial Development, Jan. 1980Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Katz, M., Reese, E. T.: Appl. Microbiol. 16 (2), 419 (1968)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kelly, J. A.: Radiolytic Hydrolysis of Cellulose, U.S. Environ. Protec. Agency Report EPA-670/2-73-030,1973Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kelsey, R. G., Shafizadeh, F.: Biotech. Bioeng. 22, 1025 (1980)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kirk, T. K., Harkin, J. M.: AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 133, 124 (1973)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Klee, A. J., Rogers, C. J.: In: Proceedings of the Second Pacific Chemical Engineering Congress, Vol. 2, p. 759. New York: AIChE 1977Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kleinert, T. N.:TAPPI, 57, 99 (1974)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Knappert, D., Grethlein, H., Converse, A.: Biotech. Bioeng. 22, 1449 (1980)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kobayashi, T.: Proc. Biochem. 19 (Feb. 1971)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Koenigs, J. W.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 151. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kumakura, M. Kaetsu, I.: Biotech. Bioeng. 20, 1309 (1979)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kunz, N. D., Gainer, J. L., Kelly, J. L.: Nuclear Technol. 16, 556 (1972)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ladisch, M. R., Flickinger, M. C, Tsao, G. T.: Energy 4, 263 (1978)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lawton, E. J. et al.: Science 113, 380 (1951)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lee, Y. H., Fan, L. T.: Presented at Vlth Int. Ferment. Symp. London, Ontario, Canada, July 20–25, 1980Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lee, Y. Y. et al.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 8, C. D. Scott (Ed.), p. 75. New York: Interscience 1978Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lehmann, F.: Ger. Pat. No. 169,800, March 26, 1905Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Linden, J. C, Murphy, V. G., Moreira, A. R.: Presented at the Vlth Int. Ferment. Symp., London, Ontario, Canada, July 20–25, 1980Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Linko, M.: In: Adv. Biochem. Eng. Vol. 5, T. K. Ghose, A. Fiechter, N. Blakebrough (Eds.), p. 27. Berlin: Springer 1977Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lipinsky, E.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., R. D. Brown, Jr., L. Jurasek (Eds.), 181, p. 1. Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1979Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lloyd, R. A., Harris, J. R.: U.S. Dept. Agr. Forest Serv. Report, 2029, Wash. D.C. 1963Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    MacDonald, D. G., Mathews, J. F.: Biotech. Bioeng. 21, 1091 (1979)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mandels, M., Hontz, L., Nystrom, J.: Biotech. Bioeng. 16, 1471 (1974)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mandels, M., Sternberg, D.: J. Ferment. Technol. 54, 267 (1976)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mellenberger, R. W. et al.: J. Anim. Sci. 32, 756 (1971)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mellenberger, R. W. et al.: J. Anim. Sci. 30, 1005 (1970)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Millett, M. A. et al.: J. Anim. Sci. 31, 781 (1970)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Millett, M. A., Baker, A. J., Satter, L. D.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 193. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Millett, M. A., Baker, A. J., Satter, L. D.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 6, E. L. Gaden Jr. et al. (Eds.), p. 125. New York: Interscience 1976Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Millett, M. A., Effland, M. J., Caulfield, D. F.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., R. D. Brown Jr., L. Jurasek (Eds.), 181, p. 71. Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1979Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Millett, M. A.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 319. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Millett, M. A., Goedken, V. L.: TAPPI 48, 367 (1965)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moore, W. E., Effland, M. J., Millett, M. A.: J. Agr. Food Chera. 20, 1173 (1972)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Moo-Young, M., Chahal, D. S., Vlach, D.: Biotech. Bioeng. 20, 107 (1978)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nesse, N., Wallick, J., Harper, J. M.: Biotech. Bioeng. 19, 323 (1977)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nisizawa, K.: J. Ferment. Technol. 51, 267 (1973)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nguyen, X. N. et al.: Presented at the 89th AIChE Nat. Meet., Portland, Oregon, August 17–20, 1980Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Nolan, E. J. et al.: Presented at the Vlth Int. Ferment. Symp., London, Ontario, Canada, July 20–25, 1980Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nystrom, J.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 221. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Selvam, P. V., Ghose, T. K.: Presented at the Ilnd Int. Symp. on Bioconv. and Biochem. Eng., IIT Delhi, India, March 3–6, 1980Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Peitersen, N., Andersen, B.: AIChE Symp. Ser. No. 172, Vol. 74, 100 (1978)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Peitersen, N.: In: Symp. on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose, M. Bailey, T. M. Enari, M. Linko (Eds.), p. 407. Helsinki: SITRA 1975Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pew, J. C: TAPPI 40, 553 (1957)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pew, J. C, Weyna, P.: TAPPI 45, 247 (1962)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Phillip, B. et al.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., R. D. Brown Jr., L. Jurasek (Eds.), 181, p. 127. Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1979Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Phillip, B., Schleicher, H., Wagenknecht, W.: Chemtech, Nov. 1977, p. 702.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pritchard, G. I., Pigden, W. J., Minson, D. J.: Can. J. Anim. Sci. 42, 215 (1962)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ranby, B.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., G. J. Hajny, E. T. Reese (Eds.), 95, p. 139. Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rogers, C. J. et al.: Environ. Sci. Technol. 6, 715 (1972)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rydholm, S. A.: Pulping Processes, p. 218. New York: Interscience 1965Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ryu, D. D. Y: Presented at 6th Int. Ferment. Symp., London, Ontario, Canada, July 20–25, 1980Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Saarinen, P., Jenson, W. J., Alhojarvi, J.: Acta Agral. Fennica. 94, 41 (1959)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Saeman, J. F., Millett, M. A., Lawton, E. J.: Ind. Eng. Chem. 44, 2848 (1952)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sarkanen, K. V., Assiz, S., Chiang, V.: Presented at the AIChE 89th Nat. Meet., Portland, Oregon, Aug. 17–20, 1980.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sasaki, T., Nakagawa, S., Kainuma, K.: Presented at Amer. Asso. of Cereal Chemists Annual Meet., San Francisco, Oct. 23–28, 1977Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Schurz, J.: In: Bioconversion of Cellulosic Substances into Energy Chemicals and Microbial Protein Symp. Proa, T. K. Ghose (Ed.), p. 37. New Delhi: IIT, Delhi 1978Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Scott, R. W., Millett, M. A., Hajny, G. J.: Forest Prod. J. 19 (4), 14 (1969)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Shafizadeh, F.: TAPPI Forest Biology Wood Chemistry Conf., Madison, June 20–22, 1977Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sharkov, V. I., Levanova, V. P.: Zh. Priklad. Khim. 33, 2563 (1960)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Spano, L. A. et al.: In: Interagency-Environment Research and Development Program Report, EPA-600/7-77/038, 1977Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stone, J. E. et al.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., G. J. Hajny, E. T. Reese (Eds.) 95, p. 223. Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Stranks, D. W.: Forest Prod. J. 9, 228 (1959)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sullivan, J. T., Hershberger, T. V.: Science 130, 1252 (1959)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tanaka, M. et al.: J. Ferment. Technol. 57, 186 (1979)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tarkow, H., Feist, W. C: In: Adv. Chem. Series, G. J. Hajny, E. T. Reese (Eds.) 95, p. 197. Amer. Chem. Soc, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tassinari, T., Macy, C: Biotech. Bioeng. 19, 1321 (1977)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Taylor, P. C: In: Machinery and Equipment for Rubber and Plastics, Vol. 1, Seaman, R. G., Merrill, A. M. (Eds.), p. 13. New York: Bill Brothers Pub. Corp. 1952Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Toyama, N., Ogawa, K.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 225. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Toyama, N.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 6, E. L. Gaden Jr. et al. (Eds.), p. 207. New York: Interscience 1976Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Toyama, N., Ogawa, K.: In: Symp. on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose, M. Bailey, T. M. Enari. M. Linko (Eds.), p. 375, 1975Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Toyama, N., Ogawa, K.: In: Bioconversion of Cellulosic Substances into Energy Chemicals and Microbial Protein Symp. Proa, T. K. Ghose (Ed.), p. 373. New Delhi: IIT Delhi 1978Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tsao, G. T.: J. Chinese Inst. Chem. Eng. 9, 1 (1978)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Tsao, G. T. et al: In: Annual Reports on Fermentation Processes, Vol. 2, D. Perlman (Ed.), p. 1. New York: Academic Press 1978Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tsao, G. T.: Presented at U.S.-R.O.C. Joint Seminary Ferment. Eng., Philadelphia, May 30–June 1, 1978Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Turbak, A. F. et al.: Chemtech, Jan. 1980Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tyagi, R. D., Ghose, T. K.: In: Bioconversion of Cellulosic Substances into Energy Chemicals and Microbial Protein Symp. Proa, T. K. Ghose (Ed.), p. 585. New Delhi: IIT Delhi 1978Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Van Soest, P. J.: In: Adv. Chem. Ser., G. J. Hajny, E. T. Reese (Eds.) 95, p. 267. Amer. Chem. Soa, Wash. D.C. 1969Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Waiss, Jr. A. C. et al.: J. Anim. Sci. 55, 109 (1972)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Walker, H. G. et al.: Cereal Chem. 47, 513 (1970)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Walseth, C. S.: TAPPI 35, 228 (1952)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wardrop, A. B.: In: Lignins, K. V. Sarkanen, C. H. Ludwig (Eds.), p. 19. New York: Wiley Interscience 1971Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Warwicker, J. O. et al.: In: Shirley Institute Pamph. No. 93, 1966Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wilke, C. R.: In: Pilot Plant Studies of the Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Ca., LBL 6860, June 1977Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wilke, C. R.: In: Process Development Studies of the Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Ca., LBL 6881, Feb. 1978Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Wilke, C. R.: In: Process Development of the Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Ca., LBL 7880, Sept. 1978Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wilke, C. R., Mitra, G.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 5, C. R. Wilke (Ed.), p. 253. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wilke, C. R., Yang, R. D.: In: Proc. of the VHIth Cellulose Conf. 1. Wood Chemicals-A Future Challenge, T. E. Timell (Ed.), p. 175. New York: Interscience 1975Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wilke, C. R., Yang, R. D., Stockar, U. v.: Biotech. Bioeng. Symp. No. 6, E. L. Gaden Jr. et al. (Eds.), p. 155. New York: Interscience 1976Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Williams, M. A., Baer, S.: Feedstuffs 36, 48 (1964)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Wilson, R. K., Pigden, W. J.: Can. J. Anim. Sci. 44, 122 (1964)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wilson, P. N., Brigstocke, T.: Process Biochem. 12, 17 (1977)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Woodman, H. E., Evans, R. E.: J. Agr. Sci. 37, 202 (1947)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Anonymous: A Fungus to Digest Lignin, Gasohol U.S.A. 2 (10), 26 (1980)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Anonymous: Continuous Cellulose to Glucose Process, Chem. Eng. News, Oct. 8, 1979Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Binder, A., Pelloni, L., Fiechter, A.: Eur. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 11, 1 (1980)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. T. Fan
    • 1
  • Young-Hyun Lee
    • 1
  • M. M. Gharpuray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering Kansas State University ManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations