Some thoughts on statecharts, 13 years later

Summary of talk
  • David Harel
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1254)


The talk describes the background and motivation for the language of statecharts, discusses some of the semantic issues it raises, shows how statecharts have been embedded in structured-analysis and object-oriented frameworks, and describes the supporting tools, Statemate and Rhapsody, from i-Logix, Inc. Some peripheral research is also mentioned.


Weizmann Institute Dynamic Semantic Executable Code Message Sequence Chart Semantic Issue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. [B]
    Booch, G., Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, with Applications (2nd edn.), Benjamin/Cummings, 1994.Google Scholar
  2. [CD]
    Cook, S. and J. Daniels, Designing Object Systems: Object-Oriented Modelling with Syntropy, Prentice Hall, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  3. [DaH]
    Davidson, R. and D. Harel, “Drawing Graphs Nicely Using Simulated Annealing”, ACM Transactions on Graphics 15 (Oct. 1996), 301–331. (Also, Technical report, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, 1989.)Google Scholar
  4. [DH]
    Drusinsky, D. and D. Harel, “On the Power of Bounded Concurrency I: Finite Automata”, J. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 41 (1994), 517–539.Google Scholar
  5. [EGKP]
    Ehrig, H., R. Geisler, M. Klar and J. Padberg, “Horizontal and Vertical Structuring Techniques for Statecharts”, Proc. CONCUR '97, to appear.Google Scholar
  6. [H1]
    Harel, D., “Statecharts: A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems”, Sci. Comput. Prog. 8 (1987), 231–274. (Preliminary version appeared as Tech. Report CS84-05, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, Feb. 1984.)Google Scholar
  7. [H2]
    Harel, D., “On Visual Formalisms”, Comm. ACM 31 (1988), 514–530.Google Scholar
  8. [H3]
    Harel, D., “Biting the Silver Bullet: Toward a Brighter Future for System Development”, Computer (Jan. 1992), 8–20.Google Scholar
  9. [HG]
    Harel, D. and E. Gery, “Executable Object Modeling with Statecharts”, Computer, to appear. (Also, Proc. 18th Int. Conf. Soft. Eng., Berlin, IEEE Press, March, 1996, pp. 246–257.)Google Scholar
  10. [H+]
    Harel, D., H. Lachover, A. Naamad, A. Pnueli, M. Politi, R. Sherman, A. Shtull-Trauring, and M. Trakhtenbrot, “STATEMATE: A Working Environment for the Development of Complex Reactive Systems”, IEEE Trans. Soft. Eng. 16 (1990), 403–414. (Preliminary version appeared in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Soft. Eng., IEEE Press, New York, 1988, pp. 396–406.)Google Scholar
  11. [HN]
    Harel, D. and A. Naamad, “The STATEMATE Semantics of Statecharts”, ACM Trans. Soft. Eng. Method. 5:4 (Oct. 1996), 293–333. (Preliminary version appeared as Tech. Report, i-Logix, Inc., 1989.)Google Scholar
  12. [HPn]
    Harel, D. and A. Pnueli, “On the Development of Reactive Systems”, in Logics and Models of Concurrent Systems, (K. R. Apt, ed.), NATO ASI Series, Vol. F-13, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985, pp. 477–498.Google Scholar
  13. [HP]
    Harel, D. and M. Politi, Modeling Reactive Systems with Statecharts, McGraw-Hill, to appear. (Early version titled The Languages of STATEMATE, Tech. Report, i-Logix, Inc. (250 pp.), 1991.)Google Scholar
  14. [HPSS]
    Harel, D., A. Pnueli, J.P. Schmidt and R. Sherman, “On the Formal Semantics of Statecharts”, Proc. 2nd IEEE Symp. on Logic in Computer Science, IEEE Press, New York, 1987, pp. 54–64.Google Scholar
  15. [HS]
    Harel, D. and M. Sardas, “Randomized Graph Drawing with Heavy-Duty Preprocessing”, J. Visual Lang. and Comput. 6 (1995), 233–253.Google Scholar
  16. [HR]
    Huizing, C. and W. P. deRoever, “Introduction to design choices in the semantics of Statecharts”, Inf. Proc. Lett. 37 (1991), 205–213.Google Scholar
  17. [KP]
    Kesten, Y. and A. Pnueli, “Timed and Hybrid Statecharts and their Textual Representation”, In Formal Techniques in Real-Time and Fault-Tolerant Systems (J. Vytopil, ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 571, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992, pp. 591–619.Google Scholar
  18. [L+]
    Leveson, N.G., M.P.E. Heimdahl, H. Hildreth and J.D. Reese, “Requirements Specification for Process-Control Systems”, IEEE Trans. Soft. Eng. 20 (1995), 684–707.Google Scholar
  19. [MLPS]
    Mikk, E., Y. Lakhnech, C. Petersohn and M. Siegel, “On Formal Semantics of Statecharts as Supported by Statemate”, Manuscript, 1996.Google Scholar
  20. [M]
    Maraninchi, F., “Operational and Compositional Semantics of Asynchronous Automaton Compositions”, Proc. CONCUR '92, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 630, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992, pp. 550–564.Google Scholar
  21. [PU]
    Petersohn, C., and L. Urbina, “A Timed Semantics for the Statemate Implementation of Statecharts”, Manuscript, 1996.Google Scholar
  22. [PS]
    Pnueli, A. and M. Shalev, “What is in a Step: On the Semantics of Statecharts”, Proc. Symp. on Theoret. Aspects of Cornput. Soft., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 526, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991, pp. 244–264.Google Scholar
  23. [Ra]
    Rational Corp., Documents on UML (the Unified Modeling Language), Version 1.0 (, 1996.Google Scholar
  24. [R+]
    Rumbaugh, J., M. Blaha, W. Premerlani, F. Eddy and W. Lorensen, Object-Oriented Modeling and Design, Prentice Hall, 1991.Google Scholar
  25. [SGW]
    Selic, B., G. Gullekson and P. T. Ward, Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. [SM]
    Shlaer, S. and S. J. Mellor, Object Lifecycles: Modeling the World in States, Yourdon Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  27. [vB]
    von der Beek, M., “A Comparison of Statechart Variants”, in Formal Techniques in Real-Time and Fault-Tolerant Systems (Langmaack, de Roever and Vytopil, eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 863, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994, pp. 128–148.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Harel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael
  2. 2.I-Logix, Inc.Andover

Personalised recommendations