Property-oriented expansion

  • Bernhard Steffen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1145)


The paper develops a framework for property-oriented expansion, which is much more powerful than the state of the art (motion-based) approaches, supports the combination of transformations, and is open to automatic generation by means of synthesis. The power of our method comes at the price of an exponential worst case complexity, which, however, hardly shows up in practice: usually the algorithm behaves very moderately and provides results, which are essentially of the same size as the argument program. Power and limitations of property-oriented expansion are illustrated by means of algorithms, which are unique in eliminating all partial redundancies and all partially dead code.


data flow analysis modal logic partially dead code elimination optimization partial redundancy elimination program expansion transition systems 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [ASU]
    A.V. Aho, R. Sethi, J.D. Ullman. Compilers: Principles, Techniques and Tools, Addison-Wesley, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. [BS]
    J. Bradfield, C.Stirling. Local Model Checking for Infinite State Spaces. LFCS Report Series ECS-LFCS-90-115, June 1990Google Scholar
  3. [CC]
    P. Cousot, R. Cousot. Abstract interpretation: A unified Lattice Model for static Analysis of Programs by Construction or Approximation of Fixpoints. In Proceedings 4th POPL, Los Angeles, California, January, 1977Google Scholar
  4. [CCo]
    C. Click, K.D. Cooper. Combining Anlyses, Combining Optimizations, ACM TOPLAS N.2, Vol.17, pp.181–196, 1995Google Scholar
  5. [CES]
    E. Clarke, E.A. Emerson, A.P. Sistla. Automatic Verification of Finite State Concurrent Systems using Temporal Logic Specifications: A Practical Approach. In Proceedings 10th POPL'83, 1983Google Scholar
  6. [Cli]
    C. Click. Combining Analyses, Combining Optimizations, Ph.D. Thesis, Rice University, Houston, TX, 1995, 149 pages.Google Scholar
  7. [EL]
    E. Emerson, J. Lei, Efficient model checking in fragments of the propositional mu-calculus. In Proceedings LICS'86, 267–278, 1986Google Scholar
  8. [GMW]
    R. Giegerich, U. Möncke, R. Wilhelm. Invariance of Approximative Semantics with Respect to Program Transformations, Informatik-Fachberichte 50, pp. 1–10, Proc. of the third Conference of the European Co-operation in Informatics, Springer, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. [God]
    P. Godefroit. Partial-Order Methods for the Verification of Concurrent Systems. LNCS Monography, LNCS 1032, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. [Hdh]
    S. Horwitz, A. Demers, T. Teitelbaum. An Efficient General Iterative Algorithm for Data Flow Analysis, Acta Informatica, vol. 24, pp. 679–694, 1987.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. [Ki]
    G. A. Kildall. A unified approach to global program optimization. In Conf. Rec. 1st ACM Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages (POPL'73), pages 194–206. ACM, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. [KKKS]
    M. Klein, J. Knoop, D. Koschützki, B. Steffen. DFA & OPT-MetaFrame: A Toolkit for Program Analysis and Optimization (Tool description) — Proc. TACAS'96, Int. Workshop on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, Passau, LNCS 1055 Springer, pp. 418–421Google Scholar
  13. [Koz]
    D. Kozen. Results on the Propositional mu-Calculus. TCS 27, 333–354, 1983Google Scholar
  14. [KRS1]
    J. Knoop, O. Rüthing, B. Steffen. Partial Dead Code Elimination, SIGPLAN PLDI Conference'94, ACM SIGPLAN Notices 29, Orlando, June 1994Google Scholar
  15. [KRS2]
    J. Knoop, O. Rüthing, B. Steffen. The Power of Assignment Motion, Proc. of the ACM SIGPLAN'95 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implemantion (PLDI'95), La Jolla, California, June 1995, SIGPLAN Notices 30, 6 (1995), 233–245Google Scholar
  16. [MaWo]
    Z. Manna, P. Wolper. “Synthesis of Communicating Processes from Temporal Logic Specifications,∝ ACM TOPLAS Vol.6, N.1, Jan. 1984, pp.68–93.Google Scholar
  17. [MR]
    E. Morel, C. Renvoise. Global Optimization by Suppression of Partial Redundancies. Communications of the ACM 22, 96–103, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [JoNi]
    N.D. Jones, F. Nielson. Abstract Interpretation: A Semantics-Based Tool for Program Analysis. In Handbook of Logics in Computer Science, Vol. 4, pp. 527–637, Oxford University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  19. [RWZ]
    B.K. Rosen, M.N. Wegman, F.K. Zadeck. “Global Value Numbers and Redundant Computations∝. 15th POPL, San Diego, California, 12–27, 1988Google Scholar
  20. [SI]
    B. Steffen, A.Ingolfsdottir. Characteristic Formulae for Finite State Processes, International Journal on Information and Computation, Vol. 110, No. 1, 1994Google Scholar
  21. [SiCl]
    A.P. Sistla, E.M. Clarke. “The Complexity of the Propositional Linear Temporal Logics,∝ Journal of the ACM, Vol.32, N.3, July 1985, pp.733–749.Google Scholar
  22. [Ste1]
    B. Steffen. Characteristic Formulae. Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, ICALP'89, LNCS 372, 1989Google Scholar
  23. [Ste2]
    B. Steffen. Data Flow Analysis as Model Checking. Proceedings of the International Concerence on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Software, TACS'91, LNCS 526, 1991Google Scholar
  24. [Ste3]
    B. Steffen. Generating Data Flow Analysis Algorithms from Modal Specifications, International Journal on Science of Computer Programming, N. 21, 1993, pp. 115–139.Google Scholar
  25. [StMC]
    B. Steffen, T. Margaria, A. Claßen. Heterogeneous Analysis and Verification for Distributed Systems, In “SOFTWARE: Concepts and Tools∝, vol. 17, N.1, pp. 13–25, Springer Verlag, 1996.Google Scholar
  26. [Tar]
    A. Tarski. A Lattice-Theoretical Fixpoint Theorem and its Applications. Pacific Journal of Mathematics, v. 5, 1955.Google Scholar
  27. [WS]
    D. Whitfield, M.L. Soffa. An Approach to Ordering Optimizing Transformations, Proc. 2nd ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles & Practice of Parallel Programming (PPOPP), Seattle, Washington, SIGPLAN Notes 25,3, pp.137–147, March 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernhard Steffen
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität PassauGermany

Personalised recommendations