Advertisement

A uniform approach for compile-time and run-time specialization

  • Charles Consel
  • Luke Hornof
  • FranÇois NoËl
  • Jacques Noyé
  • Nicolae Volanschi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1110)

Abstract

As partial evaluation gets more mature, it is now possible to use this program transformation technique to tackle realistic languages and real-size application programs. However, this evolution raises a number of critical issues that need to be addressed before the approach becomes truly practical.

First of all, most existing partial evaluators have been developed based on the assumption that they could process any kind of application program. This attempt to develop universal partial evaluators does not address some critical needs of real-size application programs. Furthermore, as partial evaluators treat richer and richer languages, their size and complexity increase drastically. This increasing complexity revealed the need to enhance design principles. Finally, exclusively specializing programs at compile time seriously limits the applicability of partial evaluation since a large class of invariants in real-size programs are not known until run time and therefore cannot be taken into account.

In this paper, we propose design principles and techniques to deal with each of these issues.

By defining an architecture for a partial evaluator and its essential components, we are able to tackle a rich language like C without compromising the design and the structure of the resulting implementation.

By designing a partial evaluator targeted towards a specific application area, namely system software, we have developed a system capable of treating realistic programs.

Because our approach to designing a partial evaluator clearly separates preprocessing and processing aspects, we are able to introduce run-time specialization in our partial evaluation system as a new way of exploiting information produced by the preprocessing phase.

Keywords

Partial Evaluation Program Transformation Remote Procedure Call Partial Evaluator Tree Grammar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    L.O. Andersen.-Self-applicable C program specialization.-In Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation, pages 54–61, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 1992. Yale University, Hew Haven, CT, USA.-Technical Report YALEU/DCS/RR-909.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.O. Andersen.-Program Analysis and Specialization for the C Programming Language.-PhD thesis, Computer Science Department, University of Copenhagen, May 1994.-DIKU Technical Report 94/19.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Auslander, M. Philipose, C. Chambers, S.J. Eggers, and B.N. Bershad.-Fast, effective dynamic compilation.-In PLDI96 [35].-To appear.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Baier, R. Glück, and R. Zöchling.-Partial evaluation of numerical programs in Fortran.-In PEPM94 [33], pages 119–132.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B.N. Bershad, S. Savage, P. Pardyak, E. Gün Sirer, M.E. Fiuczynski, D. Becker, C. Chambers, and S. Eggers.-Extensibility, safety and performance in the SPIN operating system.-In SOSP95 [41], pages 267–283.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Birkedal and M. Welinder.-Partial evaluation of Standard ML.-Master's thesis, Computer Science Department, University of Copenhagen, 1993.-Research Report 93/22.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.R. Chase, M. Wegman, and F. Kenneth Zadeck.-Analysis of pointers and structures.-In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN '90 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, pages 296–310, White Plains, NY, USA, June 1990. ACM Press.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 25(6).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Consel.-Polyvariant binding-time analysis for applicative languages.-In PEPM93 [32]June, pages 145–154.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Consel.-A tour of Schism.-In PEPM93 [32]June, pages 66–77.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Consel and O. Danvy.-From interpreting to compiling binding times.-In N.D. Jones, editor, ESOP'90, 3 rd European Symposium on Programming, volume 432 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 88–105. Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Consel and O. Danvy.-For a better support of static data flow.-In J. Hughes, editor, Proceedings of the 5 th ACM conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture, volume 523 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 496–519, Cambridge, MA, USA, August 1991. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Consel and O. Danvy.-Tutorial notes on partial evaluation.-In Proceedings of the 20 th Annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles Of Programming Languages, pages 493–501, Charleston, SC, USA, January 1993. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Consel and F. NoËl.-A general approach for run-time specialization and its application to C.-In POPL96 [36]., pages 145–156.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Consel, C. Pu, and J. Walpole.-Incremental specialization: The key to high performance, modularity and portability in operating systems.-In PEPM93 [32]June.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Consel, C. Pu, and J. Walpole.-Making production OS kernel adaptive: Incremental specialization in practice.-Technical report, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Emami, R. Ghiya, and L.J. Hendren.-Context-sensitive interprocedural points-to analysis in the presence of function pointers.-In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN '94 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, pages 242–256. ACM Press, June 1994.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 29(6).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D.R. Engler, W.C. Hsieh, and M.F. Kaashoek.-C: A language for high-level, efficient, and machine-independent dynamic code generation.-In POPL96 [36]., pages 131–144.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.R. Engler, M.F. Kaashoek, and J.W. O'Toole.-Exokernel: An operating system architecture for application-level resource management.-In SOSP95 [41], pages 251–266.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.R. Engler and T.A. Proebsting.-DCG: An efficient retargetable dynamic code generation system.-In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS VI), pages 263–273. ACM Press, November 1994.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.M. Erosa and L.J. Hendren.-Taming control flow: A structured approach to eliminating goto statements.-In Proceedings of the IEEE 1994 International Conference on Computer Languages, May 1994.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A.P. Ershov.-On the essence of translation.-Computer Software and System Programming, 3(5):332–346, 1977.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    N.D. Jones, C. Gomard, and P. Sestoft.-Partial Evaluation and Automatic Program Generation.-International Series in Computer Science. Prentice-Hall, June 1993.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N.D. Jones and S.S. Muchnick.-TEMPO: A Unified Treatment of Binding Time and Parameter Passing Concepts in Programming Languages, volume 66 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science.-Springer-Verlag, 1978.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N.D. Jones, P. Sestoft, and H. Søndergaard.-Mix: a self-applicable partial evaluator for experiments in compiler generation.-Lisp and Symbolic Computation, 2(1):9–50, 1989.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Keppel, S. Eggers, and R. Henry.-Evaluating runtime compiled value-specific optimizations.-Technical Report 93-11-02, Department of Computer Science, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 1993.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Leone and P. Lee.-Lightweight run-time code generation.-In PEPM94 [33].Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Leone and P. Lee.-Optimizing ML with run-time code generation.-In PLDI96 [35].-To appear.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    U. Meyer.-Techniques for partial evaluation of imperative languages.-In Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation, pages 94–105, New Haven, CT, USA, September 1991.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 26(9).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.B. Montz, D. Mosberger, S.W. O'Malley, L.L. Peterson, T.A. Proebsting, and J.H. Hartman.-Scout: A communications-oriented operating system.-Technical Report 94-20, Department of Computer Science, The University of Arizona, 1994.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    F. Nielson.-A denotational framework for data flow analysis.-Acta Informatica, 18(3):265–287, 1982.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. Nirkhe and W. Pugh.-Partial evaluation and high-level imperative programming languages with applications in hard real-time systems.-In Proceedings of the 19 th Annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles Of Programming Languages, pages 269–280, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, January 1992. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 1993. Yale University, Hew Haven, CT, USA.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation. Technical Report 94/9, University of Melbourne, Australia, 1994.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN '95 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation. ACM Press, June 1995.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 30(6).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN '96 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, Philadelphia, PA, May 1996. ACM Press.-To appear.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Proceedings of the 23rd Annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles Of Programming Languages, St. Petersburg Beach, FL, USA, January 1996. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. Pu, T. Autrey, A. Black, C. Consel, C. Cowan, J. Inouye, L. Kethana, J. Walpole, and K. Zhang.-Optimistic incremental specialization: Streamlining a commercial operating system.-In SOSP95 [41], pages 314–324.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Pu, H. Massalin, and J. Ioannidis.-The Synthesis kernel.-Computing Systems, 1(1):11–32, Winter 1988.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V. Rozier, V. Abrossimov, F. Armand, I. Boule, M. Gien, M. Guillemont, F. Herrmann, C. Kaiser, S. Langlois, P. Léonard, and W. Neuhauser.-Overview of the Chorus distributed operating system.-In USENIX — Workshop Proceedings-Micro-kernels and Other Kernel Architectures, pages 39–70, Seattle, WA, USA, April 1992.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    E. Ruf.-Context-insensitive alias analysis reconsidered.-In PLDI95 [34], pages 13–22.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 30(6).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Proceedings of the 1995 ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, Copper Mountain Resort, CO, USA, December 1995. ACM Operating Systems Reviews, 29(5).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    E.N. Volanschi, G. Muller, and C. Consel.-Safe operating system specialization: the RPC case study.-In Workshop Record of WCSSS'96 — The Inaugural Workshop on Compiler Support for Systems Software, pages 24–28, Tucson, AZ, USA, February 1996.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R.P. Wilson, R.S. French, C.S. Wilson, S.P. Amarasinghe, J.M. Anderson, S.W.K. Tjiang, S.-W. Liao, C.-W. Tseng, M.W. Hall, M.S. Lam, and J.L. Hennessy.-SUIF: An infrastructure for research on parallelizing and optimizing compilers.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 29(12):31–37, December 94.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R.P. Wilson and M.S. Lam.-Efficient context-sensitive pointer analysis of C programs.-In PLDI95 [34], pages 1–12.-ACM SIGPLAN Notices, 30(6).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Consel
    • 1
  • Luke Hornof
    • 1
  • FranÇois NoËl
    • 1
  • Jacques Noyé
    • 1
  • Nicolae Volanschi
    • 1
  1. 1.Université de Rennes/Irisa Campus Universitaire de BeaulieuRennes CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations