# When polynomial equation systems can be “solved” fast?

• M. Giusti
• J. Heintz
• J. E. Morais
• L. M. Pardo
Submitted Contributions
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 948)

## Abstract

We present a new method for solving symbolically zero-dimensional polynomial equation systems in the affine and toric case. The main feature of our method is the use of an alternative data structure: arithmetic networks and straight-line programs with FOR gates. For sequential time complexity measured by the size of these networks we obtain the following result: it is possible to solve any affine or toric zero-dimensional equation system in non-uniform sequential time which is polynomial in the length of the input description and the “geometric degree” of the equation system. Here, the input is thought to be given by a straight-line program (or alternatively in sparse representation), and the length of the input is measured by number of variables, degree of equations and size of the program (or sparsity of the equations). Geometric degree has to be adequately defined. It is always bounded by the algebraic-combinatoric “Bézout number” of the system which is given by the Hilbert function of a suitable homogeneous ideal. However, in many important cases, the value of the geometric degree is much smaller than the Bézout number since it does not take into account multiplicities or degrees of extraneous components (which are at infinity in the affine case or contained in some coordinate hyperplane in the toric case).

Finally, we announce the result that FOR gates can be avoided by a method which, based on Newton iteration, pulls back the whole question to ordinary arithmetic networks and straight-line programs. In this context, our complexity bounds remain valid. However, this second procedure is not rational anymore because it requires computing with algebraic numbers. This is due to its numeric ingredients (Newton iteration). Nevertheless, at least in the case of polynomial equation systems depending on parameters, the practical advantage of our method with respect to more traditional ones in symbolic and numeric computation is clearly visible.

It should be well understood that our method does not improve the well known worst-case complexity bounds for zero-dimensional equation solving in symbolic and numeric computing.

## Keywords

Irreducible Component Primitive Element Great Common Divisor Arithmetic Circuit Greatest Common Divisor
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

## Authors and Affiliations

• M. Giusti
• 1
• J. Heintz
• 2
• J. E. Morais
• 2
• L. M. Pardo
• 2
1. 1.Centre de Mathématiques, École PolytechniqueGAGEPalaiseau CedexFrance
2. 2.Departamento de Matemáticas, Estadística y Computación, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de CantabriaSantanderSpain