Advertisement

Deduction and deductive databases for geographic data handling

  • A. I. Abdelmoty
  • M. H. Williams
  • N. W. Paton
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 692)

Abstract

The representation of complex spatial domains in conventional databases suffers from fragmented representation of object structure, lack of instance-level spatial relationships, and the generation of large combinatoric search spaces in query analysis. The deductive capabilities provided by a deductive database offer some assistance in solving these problems, in particular by enabling spatial reasoning to be performed by a Geographic Information System (GIS). Deduction in the database is used to support the natural representation of complex spatial object structures in single and multi-layered Geographic DataBases (GDB), inference of implicit spatial relationships, and the manipulation of multiple resolution spatial representations. In addition, deductive capabilities are shown to be essential for automatic data input and update in a GDB. Coupled with appropriate structural representation, spatial reasoning is an important tool for the realization of an effective GDB.

Keywords

Spatial Relationship Object Class Geographic Space Object Level Spatial Reasoning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A.I. Abdelmoty, M.H. Williams, and J.M.P Quinn. A Rule-Based Approach To Computerized Map Reading. to be published in Information and Software Technology, 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Arnoff. Geographic Information Systems: A Management Perspective. WDL Publications, Ottawa, Canada, 1989.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. David and Jr. McKeown. Towards Automatic Cartographic Feature Extraction. In L.F. Pau, editor, Mapping and Spatial Modelling for Navigation, pages 150–180. Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. De Simone. Data Structures and Feature Recognition: From the Graphic Map to a Digital Database. PhD thesis, North East London Polytechnic, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.J. Egenhofer. An Extended SQL Syntax to Treat Spatial Objects. In Second International Seminar on Trends and Concerns of Spatial Sciences, pages 83–95, 1987.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.J. Egenhofer. A Formal Definition of Binary Topological Relationships. In Proc. 3rd International Conference on Foundations of Data Organization and Algorithms, FODO 89, Paris, June 1989.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.J. Egenhofer. Deficiencies of SQL as a GIS Query Language, In D.M. Mark and A.U. Frank, editors, Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space, pages 477–491. NATO ASI Series, 1990.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.J. Egenhofer. Reasoning About Binary Topological Relations. In O. Gunther and H.J. Scheck, editors, Advances in Spatial Databases, 2nd Symposium, SSD'91, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 525, pages 143–161, Zurich, Switzerland., 1991. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.J. Egenhofer and A. Frank. Object-Oriented Databases: Database Requirements for GIS. In Proc. Int. GIS Symposium: The Research Agenda, volume 2, pages 189–211, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.J. Egenhofer and R.D. Franzosa. PointSet Topological Spatial Relations. Int. J. Geographic Information Systems, 5(2):161–174, 1991.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.J. Egenhofer and J.R. Herring. A Mathematical Framework for the Definition of Topological Relationships. In Proceedings of the 4th international Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, volume 2, pages 803–13, 1990.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alvaro A.A. Fernandes, Maria L. Barja, Norman W. Paton, and M. Howard Williams. An Object-Oriented Database for Large-Scale Application Development, 1993. To appear in Proceedings of the Eleventh British National Conference on Databases (BNCOD 11).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alvaro A.A. Fernandes, M. Howard Williams, and Norman W. Paton. A Formal Abstract Definition of Objects as a Data Modelling Primitive. Technical Report TR92003, Department of Computing and Electrical Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland, April 1992. Revised June 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.U. Frank. Spatial Concepts, Geometric Data Models and Data Structures. Technical Report 90-11, National Center Geographic Information and Analysis, 1990. Two Perspectives on Geographical Data Modelling.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R.H. Guting. Gral: An Extensible Relational Database System for Geometric Applications. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pages 33–44, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Herring, R. Larsen, and J. Shivakumar. Extensions to the SQL Language to Support Spatial Analysis in a Topological Database. In GIS/LIS'89, pages 741–750, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.M. Jensen. Knowledge-Based Classification of an Urban Area Using Texture and Context Information in Landsat-TM Imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 56(6):899–904, 1990.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.M. Mckeown, W.A. Harvey, and J. Mckdermot. Rule-Based Interpretation of Aerial Imagery. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, PAMI-7:570–585, 1985.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Mehldau and R. Schowengredt. A C-Extension for Rule-Based Image Classification Systems. Photgrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 56(6):887–892, 1990.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. Mohan. An Object Oriented Knowledge Representation for Spatial Information. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 14:675–80, 1988.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O.A. Morean and R. Kasturi. Symbol Identification in Geographical Maps. In Seventh International Conference on Pattern Recognition, volume 2, pages 966–7, USA, 1984. SILVER SPRING.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.C. Muller. Rule Based Generalization: Potentials and Impediments. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, volume 1, pages 317–334. IGU, 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Munkers. Elementary Differential Topology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1966.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Nagao, T. Agui, and M. Nakajima. Automatic Extraction of Roads Denoted by Parallel Lines from 1/25,000-Scaled Maps Utilizing Skip-Scan Method. SYST. COMPUT. JPN. (USA), 21(11):96–105, 1990.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    B.C. Ooi. Efficient Query Processing in Geographic Information Systems. In G. Goos and J. Hartmanis, editors, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 471. Springer Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.K. Pachauri and P. Manoj. Landslide Hazard Mapping based on Geological Attributes. Engineering Geology, 32:81–100, 1992.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.J. Peuquet. A Conceptual Framework and Comparison of Spatial Data Models. Cartographica, 21(4):66–113, 1984.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.J. Peuquet. The Use of Spatial Relationships to Aid Spatial Database Retrieval. In Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Spatial Data Handling, pages 459–71, 1986.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D.V. Pullar and M.J. Egenhofer. Towards Formal Definition of Topological Relations Among Spatial Objects. In Proc. 3RD International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, pages 225–241, Sydney, Australia, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. A. Randell, Z. Cui, and Cohn G. A Spatial Logic Based on Regions and Connection. In Proceedings of the third International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning KR'92. 1992. Yet to appear.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Samet. Heirarchial Data Structures For Spatial Reasoning. In Mapping and Spatial Modeling for Navigation, pages 41–58. Springer-Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Schenk and O. Zierstein. Experiments with a Rule-Based System for Interpreting Linear Map Features. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 56(6):911–917, June 1990.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    T.R. Smith, R. Ramakrishnan, and A. Voisard. Object-Based Data Model and Deductive Language for Spatio-Temporal Database Applications. In G. Gambosi, M. Scholl, and H.W. Six, editors, Database Management Systems for Geographical Applications, 1991.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S. Suzuli and T. Yamada. MARIS: Map Recognition Input System. In L.F. Pau, editor, Mapping and Spatial Modelling for Navigation, pages 95–116. Springer Verlag, 1990.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M.F. Worboys, H.M. Hearnshaw, and D.J. Maguire. Object-Oriented Data and Query Modeling for Geographical Information Systems. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, pages 679–688, Zurich, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. Abdelmoty
    • 1
  • M. H. Williams
    • 1
  • N. W. Paton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computing and Electrical EngineeringHeriot-Watt UniversityRiccartonUK

Personalised recommendations