Advertisement

Ammonia masers in the interstellar medium

  • T. L. Wilson
  • P. Schilke
5. Masers in Star-Forming Regions (General)
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 412)

Abstract

Since 1986, 10 ammonia masers have been found. Most of these are found in the sources W51D, W51e1/e2, NGC7538, DR21 and W33. Among them are a few masers or maser candidates, arising from metastable inversion lines. There are many more masers arising from non-metastable inversion lines. The most outstanding is intense maser emission from the (J,K)=(9,6) inversion line. Only in W51D are any masering non-metastable transitions of para-NH3 to be found. Since the masering levels are more than 500K above ground state, there are a large number of levels populated, and the excitation scheme must be complex. It is likely that there is no unique excitation scheme for all types of ammonia masers. Although there have been a few attempts to model the ammonia maser excitation, including excitation involving vibrationally excited levels, the quest for an all-encompasing ammonia maser excitation model is still going on.

Keywords

Brightness Temperature Interstellar Medium Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Energy Level Diagram Maser Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brown R.D., Cragg D. 1991, ApJ, 378, 445Google Scholar
  2. Cesaroni R., Walmsley C.M., Churchwell E.B. 1992, A&A, (submitted)Google Scholar
  3. Cheung A.C., Rank D.M., Townes C.H., Thornton D.D., Welch W.J 1968, Phys. Rev. Lett., 21, 1701Google Scholar
  4. Flower D.R., Offer A., Schilke P. 1990, MNRAS, 244, 4pGoogle Scholar
  5. Gaume R., Johnston K.J., Nguyen H.A., Wilson T.L., Dickel H.R., Goss W.M, Wright M.C.H 1991, ApJ, 376, 608Google Scholar
  6. Guilloteau S., Wilson T.L., Martin R.N., Batrla W., Pauls T.A. 1983, A&A, 124, 322Google Scholar
  7. Hermsen W., Wilson T.L., Walmsley C.M, Batrla W. 1985, A&A, 146, 134Google Scholar
  8. Hermsen W., Wilson T.L., Walmsley C.M., Henkel C. 1988, A&A, 201, 285Google Scholar
  9. Ho P.T.T., Townes C.H. 1983, Ann. Rev. A&A, 21, 239Google Scholar
  10. Johnston K.J., Stolovy S., Wilson T.L., Henkel C., 1989, ApJ, 343, L41Google Scholar
  11. Madden S.C., Irvine W.M, Matthews H.E., Brown R.D., Godfrey P.D. 1986, ApJ, 300, L79Google Scholar
  12. Mauersberger R., Henkel C., Wilson T.L., Walmsley C.M 1986a, A&A, 162, 199Google Scholar
  13. Mauersberger R., Wilson T.L., Henkel C. 1986b A&A, 160, L13Google Scholar
  14. Mauersberger R., Henkel C., Wilson T.L. 1987, A&A, 173, 352Google Scholar
  15. Pratap P., Menten K.M., Reid M.J., Moran J.M., Walmsley C.M. 1991, ApJ, 273, L13Google Scholar
  16. Schilke P. 1989, Diploma Thesis, Bonn Univ.Google Scholar
  17. Schilke P., Walmsley C.M., Mauersberger R. 1991, A&A, 247, 516Google Scholar
  18. Walmsley C.M., Ungerechts H. 1983, A&A, 122, 164Google Scholar
  19. Wilson T.L., Henkel C. 1988, A&A 206, L26Google Scholar
  20. Wilson T.L., Johnston K.J., Henkel C. 1990, A&A, 229, L1Google Scholar
  21. Wilson T.L., Gaume R., Johnston K.J. 1991, A&A, 251, L7Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. L. Wilson
    • 1
  • P. Schilke
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieBonn 1Germany

Personalised recommendations