Advertisement

Lyotropic main chain liquid crystal polymers

  • M. G. Northolt
  • D. J. Sikkema
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 98)

Abstract

The synthesis, rheology, and spinning, as well as the mechanical and morphological properties of high-strength/high-modulus fibres made from lyotropic main chain liquid crystal polymers are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on those polymers that have attained (semi)-commercial status. Quantitative relations observed between the rheological and the spinning parameters, and between the structure and the mechanical properties, are extensively discussed. It is shown that these relations fit theoretical expectations as far as the modulus is concerned. A complete model for the strength of these fibers needs further development. A first attempt to provide a theoretical explanation of the long term properties, like creep and stress relaxation, is presented.

Keywords

Draw Ratio Fiber Axis Persistence Length Weibull Modulus Kink Band 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Latin symbols

a

exponent Mark-Houwink equation

c

concentration

c*

critical concentration

°C

degree Celsius

DSC

differential scanning calorimetry

DTA

differential thermal analysis

ec

chain modulus

E

tensile modulus

Ed

delocalization energy

ED

electron diffraction

f(ϕ)

orientation distribution

f(τ)

retardation time spectrum

g0

modulus for shear between adjacent chains

gII

lattice distortion parameter of the second kind

G

filament shear modulus

ΔH

activation enthalpy

IR

infrared

k

Boltzmann constant

K

degree Kelvin

Lc

contour length

L0

test length

Lp

persistence length

LG

critical Griffith length

L(T)

contour projection length

LC

liquid crystalline

LCP

liquid crystal polymers

m

Weibull modulus

M

molecular weight

Mw

weight average molecular weight

n

longitudinal refractive index

n

lateral refractive index

na, nb, nc

axes refractive index ellipsoid

nr

radial refractive index

nt

tangential refractive index

Δn

birefringence

Δn1

lateral birefringence

NMP

N-methyl pyrrolidone

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

p

orientability parameter

PBO

poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole)

PBT

poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole)

P2

second order Legendre polynomial

\(\overline {P_2 }\)

order parameter of the director field

〈P2

order parameter inside the domains

\(\overline {\left\langle {P_2 } \right\rangle }\)

overall order parameter

P(σ)

cumulative failure probability

PmBA

poly(m-benzamide)

PmPTA

poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide)

PpBA

poly(p-benzamide)

PpBAT

poly(4,4′-benzanilidylene terephthalamide)

PpPTA

poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide)

PPA

polyphosphoric acid

PPD

p-phenylene diamine

q

strength orienting potential

r

intermolecular distance

s44, s55

diagonal elements compliance matrix

S

compliance

ΔS

activation entropy

SAXS

small-angle X-ray scattering

t

time

T

temperature

Tg

glass transition temperature

Tm

melting temperature

Tni

clearing point or nematic-isotropic transition temperature

TDC

terephthaloyl chloride

U

anisotropic potential

V

volume

w/w

weight fraction

WAXS

wide-angle X-ray scattering

Z

partition function

Greek symbols

α β, γ

mechanical relaxation peaks

δ

loss factor

ε

strain

εb

elongation at break

εc

chain stretching contribution to the strain

ε0

imposed strain during stress relaxation

εr

rotational contribution to the strain

Δε

anisotropy of polarizability

[η]

intrinsic viscosity

λ

draw ratio

λa

draw ratio in the air gap

λmax

maximum draw ratio

λ0

predraw ratio

μ

relaxation constant

ϱc

crystalline density

σ

stress

σb

tensile strength or tenacity

σc

compressive strength

σn

normal stress

σ0

imposed stress during creep

σs

shear stress

τ

retardation time

ϕ

orientation angle with respect to director

ω

torsion angle

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

5 References

  1. 1.
    Elliot A, Ambrose EJ (1950) Discuss Faraday Soc 9: 246Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dobb MG, McIntyre JE (1984) Adv Polym Sci 60/61: 61Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kwolek SL, Morgan PW, Schaefgen JR (1988) In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, 2nd edn, Wiley-Interscience, vol 9 p 1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Percec V (1988) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 155(B): 1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wegner G (1988) Journal de Physique 49: 6815Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Villaine P, Janin C, Intern Pat Applic WO 85/05115Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roche EJ, O'Brien JP, Allen SR (1986) Polym Commun 27: 138Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Odijk T (1986) Macromolecules 19: 2313Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vollbracht L (1989) In: Allen G (ed) Comprehensive polymer science, Pergamon, 1989, vol 5 chap 22Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Preston J (1988) In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, 2nd ed, 11: 381, Wiley-InterscienceGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kwolek SL, Morgan PW, Schaefgen JR, Gulrich LW (1977) Macromolecules 10: 1390Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vollbracht L, Veerman TJ, U.S. Patent 4308374 (CA, 1976, 85: 160859v)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borkent G, Tijssen PAT, Roos JP, Van Aartsen JJ (1976) Rec Trav Chim Pays-Bas 95: 84Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuzmin NI, Zhizdyuk BI, Chegolya AS (1986) Fibre Chem 18: 13Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Higashi F, Ogata S, Aoki Y (1982) J Polym Sci, Chem edn 20: 2081Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krigbaum WR, Kotek R, Mihara Y, Preston J (1984) J Polym Sci, Chem edn 22: 4045Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Krigbaum WR, Kotek R, Mihara Y, Preston J (1985) J Polym Sci, Chem edn 23: 1907Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shin H, US Patent 4009153 (CA, 1977, 86: 141532n)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oishi Y, Kakimoto M, Imai Y (1987) Macromolecules 20: 703Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Higashi F, Nishi T (1988) J Polym Sci, Chem edn 26: 3235Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Critchley JP, Knight CJ, Wright WW (1983) Heat resistant polymers, Plenum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sillion B (1989) In: Comprehensive polymer science, vol 5 chap 30, PergamonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolfe JF, Arnold FE (1981) Macromolecules 14: 909Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wolfe JF, Loo BH, Arnold FE (1981) Macromolecules 14: 915Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Won Choe E, Kim SN (1981) Macromolecules 14: 920Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Evers RC, Arnold FE, Helminiak TE (1981) Macrmolecules 14: 925Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cotts DB, Berry GC (1981) Macromolecules 14: 930Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wellman MW, Adams WW, Wolff RA, Dudis DS, Wiff DR, Fratini AV (1981) Macromolecules 14: 935Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chu SG, Venkatraman S, Berry GC, Einaga Y (1981) Macromolecules 14: 939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Welsh WJ, Bhaumik D, Mark JE (1981) Macromolecules 14: 947Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wolfe JF (1988) In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, 2nd ed 11: 601, Wiley-InterscienceGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schmitt RJ, Ross DS, Hardee JR, Wolfe JF (1988) J Org Chem 53: 5568Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Inbasokaran MN, Eur Pat Appl 87304344Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chow AW, Sandell JF, Wolfe JF (1988) Polymer 29: 1307Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rusanov AL (1986) Pol Sci USSR 28: 1745Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ciferri A, Marsano E (1987) Gazz Chim Ital 117: 567Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Picken S (1989) Macromolecules 22: 1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Picken S (1990) Macromolecules 23: 464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Papkov SP, Kulichikhin VG, Kalmykova VD, Malkin AY (1974) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 12: 1753Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bair TI, Morgan PW, Killian FL (1977) Macromolecules 10: 1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Arpin M, Strazille C (1977) Polymer 18: 591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Panar M, Beste LF (1977) Macromolecules 10: 1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tsvetkov VN, Shtennikova IN (1978) Macromolecules 11: 306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tsvetkov VN, Rjumtsev EI, Shtennikova IN (1978) In: Liquid crystalline order in polymers, chap 2, Blumstein A (ed), Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wong CP, Ohnuma H, Berry GC (1978) J Pol Sci, Pol Symp 65: 173Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Berry GC, Metzger Cotts P, Chu S (1981) Brit Polym J 13: 47Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kulichikhin VG, Kudryavtsev GI, Papkov SP (1982) Intern J Polym Mater 9: 239Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    US Patent 3600350, 1971Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    US Patent 3767756, 1973Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    US Patent 3869430, 1975Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kawai T (1980) Makromol Chem, Rapid Commun 1: 187Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Doi M (1981) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 19: 229Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ying Q, Chu B (1984) Makromol Chem, Rapid Commun 5: 785Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ying Q, Chu B, Qian R, Bao J, Zhang J, Xu C (1985) Polymer 26: 1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chu B, Ying Q, Wu C, Ford JR, Dhadal HS (1985) Polymer 26: 1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scheafgen JR, Foldi VS, Logullo FM, Good VH, Gulrich LW, Killian FL (1976) ACS Polymer Prepr 17: 69Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tsvetkov VN, Kudryavtsev GI, Shtennikova IN, Peker TV, Zakharova EN, Kalmykova VD, Volokhina AV (1976) Eur Polym J 12: 517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Crosby CR, Ford NC, Karasz FE, Langley KH (1981) J Chem Phys 75: 4298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Metzger Cotts P, Berry GC (1983) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 21: 1255Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sartirana ML, Marsano E, Bianchi E, Ciferri A (1986) Macromolecules 19: 1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Flory PJ, Ronca G (1979) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 54: 289Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Onsager L (1949) Ann NY Acad Sci 51: 627Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Flory PJ (1956) Proc Roy Soc (London), Ser A 234: 73Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Flory PJ (1978) Macromolecules 11: 1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    De Jeu WH (1980) Physical properties of liquid crystalline materials, Gordon and Breach, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jähnig F (1979) J Chem Phys 70: 3279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ten Bosch A, Maissa P, Sixou P (1983) Phys Letts 94(A): 298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Warner M, Gunn JMF, Baumgartner A (1985) J Phys A18: 3007Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Weyland HG (1980) Polym Bull 3: 331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Baird DG (1980) J Rheology 24: 465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Onogi S, Asada T (1980) In: Rheology and rheo-optics of polymer liquid crystals. Astarita G, Marrucci G, Nicolais L (eds) Rheology, Plenum, New York, vol 1 p 127Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wissbrun KF (1981) J of Rheology 25: 619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Onogi Y, White JL, Fellers JF (1980) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 18: 663Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Onogi Y, White JL, Fellers JF (1980) J Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech 7: 121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Millaud B, Thierry A, Skoulios A (1978) J Phys (Paris) 39: 1109Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Marrucci G (1985) Pure & Appl. Chem 57: 1545Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Picken SJ (1988) Proc 12th Intern Liq Cryst Conf, Freiburg, 15–19 August; (1989) Liquid Crystals 5: 1635Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Marucci G, Ciferri A (1977) J Polym Sci, Lett edn 15: 643Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Doppert HL, Picken SJ (1987) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 153: 109Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Khokhlov AR, Semenov A (1982) Macromolecules 15: 1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Maissa P, Ten Bosch A, Sixou P (1983) J Polym Sci, Lett edn 21: 757Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bahar I, Erman B (1986) J Polym Sci, Phys. edn B24: 1361Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ciferri A, Valenti B (1977) In: Ultra-high modulus polymers, chap 7, Ciferri A, Ward IM (ed), Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    US Patent 3414645, 1968Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    British Patent Specification 389336, 1933Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Conio G, Bruzzone R, Ciferri A, Bianchi E, Tealdi A (1987) Polymer J 19: 757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kenig S (1987) Polym Eng Sci 27: 887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kuhn W, Grün F (1942) Kolloidzschr 101: 248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ward IM (1962) Proc Phys Soc 80: 1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hermans PH, Platzek P (1939) Koll Zeitschr 88: 68Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Tsvetkov VN (1976) Eur Polym 12: 867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Vitovskaia MG, Astapenko EP, Nikolaev VJ, Didenko SA, Tsvetkov VN (1976) Polym Sci USSR 18: 788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Northolt MG, Van Aartsen JJ (1973) J Polym Sci, Lett edn 11: 333Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Northolt MG (1974) Eur Polym J 10: 799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Blake CCF, Small RWH (1972) Acta Cryst B28: 2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Brown CJ (1966) Acta Cryst 21: 442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cobbledick RE, Small RWH (1972) Acta Cryst B28: 2893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Harkema S, Gaymans RJ (1977) Acta Cryst B33: 3609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harkema S, Gaymans RJ, Van Hummel GJ, Zylberlicht D (1979) Acta Cryst B35: 506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kazaryan LG, Tsvankin DY, Vasilev VA, Dakhis MA, Tolkachev YA (1975) Pol Sci USSR 17: 1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kakida H, Chatani Y, Tadokoro H (1976) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 14: 427Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Calabrese JC, Gardner KH (1985) Acta Cryst C41: 389Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lauprètre F, Monnerie L (1978) Eur Polym J 14: 415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lauprètre F, Monnerie L, Fayolle B (1980) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 18: 2243Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hummel JP, Flory PJ (1980) Macromolecules 13: 479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tashiro K, Kobayashi M, Tadokoro H (1977) Macromolecules 10: 413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Welsh WJ, Bhaumik D, Jaffe HH, Mark JE (1984) Polym Eng Sci 24: 218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Odell JA, Keller A, Atkins EDT, Miles MJ (1981) J. Mat Sci 16: 3309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Northolt MG, Stuut HA (1978) J Polym Sci, Phys edn, 16: 939Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Haraguchi K, Kajiyama T, Takayanagi M (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 23: 903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Haraguchi K, Kajiyama T, Takayanagi M (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 23: 915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Northolt MG (1981) Brit Polym J 13: 64Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hasegawa R, Kimoto K, Chatani Y, Tadokoro H (1973) Meet Soc Cryst Japan, Abstr, Osaka, Japan, p 21Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Aerts J, Akzo Res Lab, Unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Dobb MG, Johnson DJ, Saville BP (1977) J Polym Sci, Polym Symp 58: 237Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hosemann R, Wilke W (1968) Makromol Chem 118: 230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Yabuki K, Ito H, Ota T (1975) Sen-I Gakkaishi 31: T-524Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Northolt MG, Van Aartsen JJ (1977) J Polym Sci, Polym Symp 58: 283Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Panar M, Avakian P, Blume RC, Gardner KH, Gierke TD, Yang HH (1983) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 21: 1955Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Barton R (1985–86) J Macromol Sci Phys B24: 119Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Krenzer E, Ruland W (1985) Colloid & Polym Sci 263: 554Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Vainshtein BK (1966) Diffraction by chain molecules, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dobb MG, Johnson DJ, Majeed A, Saville BP (1979) Polymer 20: 1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Aerts J, Akzo Res Lab, Unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dobb MG, Johnson DJ, Saville BP (1977) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 15: 2201Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Dobb MG, Hindeleh AM, Johnson DJ, Saville BP (1975) Nature 253: 189Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Shimamura K, Minter JR, Thomas EL (1983) J Mater Sci Lett 2: 54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Roche EJ, Takahashi T, Thomas EL (1980) In: Fibre diffraction methods, chap 18, ACS Symp Ser 141, French AD, Gardner KH (ed)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Adams WW, Azaroff LV, Kulshreshtha AK (1979) Zeitschr f Krist 150: 321Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Allen SR, Farris RJ, Thomas EL (1985) J Mater Sci 20: 4583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cohen Y, Thomas EL (1988) Macromolecules 21: 436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ballou JW (1976) ACS Polymer Prepr 17: 75Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Simmens SC, Hearle JWS (1980) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 18: 871Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    US Patent 3869430, 1975Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Faust RC (1954) Proc Phys Soc 67: 138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yabuki K, Ito H, Ota T (1976) Sen-I Gakkaishi 32: T-55Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Warner SB (1983) Macromolecules 16: 1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hamza AA, Sikorsky J (1978) J Microsc 113: 15Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Weeda A, Akzo Res Lab, Unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Carter GB, Schenk VTJ (1975) In: Structure and properties of oriented polymers, chap 13, Ward IM (ed), Appl Science Publ, LondonGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hagege R, Jarrin M, Sotton M (1979) J Microsc 115: 65Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Northolt MG (1980) Polymer 21: 1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Northolt MG, Van der Hout R (1985) Polymer 26: 310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Morgan RJ, Pruneda CO, Steele WJ (1983) J Pol Sci, Phys edn 21: 1757Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Li LS, Allard LF, Bigelow WC (1983) J Macromol Sci Phys B22: 269Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Termonia Y, Meakin P, Smith P (1985) Macromolecules 18: 2246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Termonia Y, Smith P (1986) Polymer 27: 1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Smith P, Termonia Y (1989) Polym Commun 30: 66Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Cohen Y, Thomas EL (1988) Macromolecules 21: 433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Allen SR, Filippov AG, Farris RJ, Thomas EL (1981) J Appl Polym Sci 26: 291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Northolt MG, De Vries H (1985) Angew Makromol Chem 133: 183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Northolt MG (1987) In: Integr Fund Polym Sci and Techn, vol 1, p 567, Lemstra PJ, Kleintjes LA (ed), Elsevier Appl Sci, LondonGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Iovleva MM, Papkov SP (1982) Polym Sci USSR 24: 236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Papkov SP, Iovleva MM, Banduryan SI, Ivanova NA, Andreyeva IN, Kalmykova VD, Volokhina AV (1979) Polym Sci USSR 20: 742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gardner KH, Matheson RR, Avakian P, Chia YT, Gierke TD (1983) Abstr ACS Meeting 186: nr macr-14Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Arpin M, Strazielle C, Skoulios A (1977) J de Physique 38: 307Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Xu D, Okuyama K, Kumamaru F, Takayanagi M (1984) Polym J 16: 31Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gardner KH (1984) Abstr ACS Meeting 188: nr cell-60Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Takahashi T, Iwamoto H, Inoue K, Tsujimoto I (1979) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 17: 115Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Takahashi T, Yamamoto T, Tsujimoto I (1979) J Macromol Sci Phys B16: 539Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Xu D, Okuyama K, Kumamaru F, Takayana M, Zhang S, Qian R (1982) J Polym Sci, Lett edn 20: 159Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Van der Zwaag S, Akzo Res Lab, To be publishedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Van der Zwaag S, Aerts J, Northolt MG, Akzo Res Lab, Unpubl resultsGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Chen S, Jin Y, Qian R, Cai L (1987) Makromol Chem 188: 2713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Picken SJ, To be publGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ernst B, Navard P (1989) Macromolecules 22: 1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Horio M, Ishikawa S, Oda K (1985) J Appl. Pol Sci, Appl Pol Symp 41: 269Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Takase M, Krigbaum WR, Hacker H (1986) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 24: 1115Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Takase M, Ciferri A, Krigbaum WR, Hacker H (1986) J Polym Sci, Phys edn 24: 1675Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Allen SR, Filippov AG, Farris RJ, Thomas EL, Wong CP, Berry GC, Chenevey EC (1981) Macromolecules 14: 1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Allen SR, Filippov AG, Farris RJ, Thomas EL (1983) In: The strength and stiffness of polymers, chap 9, Zachariades AE, Porter RS (ed), Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Feldman L, Zihlif AM, Farris RJ, Thomas EL (1987) J Mater Sci 22: 1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Galiotis C, Robinson IM, Young RJ, Smith BJE, Batchelder DN (1985) Polym Commun 26: 354Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Van der Zwaag S, Northolt MG, Young RJ, Robinson IM, Galiotis C, Batchelder DN (1987) Polym Commun 28: 276Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Fielding-Russell GS (1971) Text Res J 41: 861Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Treloar LRG (1960) Polymer 1: 95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Kooijman H, Kroon-Batenburg LMJ, Northolt MG, To be publishedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Gaymans RJ, Tijssen J, Harkema S, Bantjes A (1976) Polymer 17: 517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ii T, Tashiro K, Kobayashi M, Tadokoro H (1987) Macromolecules 20: 347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Tashiro K, Tadokoro H (1981) Macromolecules 14: 781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Deteresa SJ, Allen SR, Farris RJ, Porter RS (1984) J Mater Sci 19: 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Knoff WF (1987) J. Mater Sci 6: 1392Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Krause SJ, Vezie DL, Adams WW (1989) Polym Commun 30: 10Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Adams WW, Wierschke SG, Lenhert PG, Stewart JJP, Klei HE, Eby RK, Jiang H (1988) Proc 7th Intern Conf Def Yield and Fract Polym, The Plast Rubb Inst, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Allen SR, Farris RJ, Thomas EL (1985) J Mater Sci 20: 2727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Weber W (1835) Ann Physik u phys Chem (Pogg Ann Physik) 4: 247Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Weber W (1841) Ann. Physik u phys Chem (Pogg Ann Physik) 24: 1Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Leaderman H (1944) Elastic and creep properties of filamentous materials and other high polymers, The Textile Foundation, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Walton PL, Majumdar AJ (1983) J Mater Sci 18: 2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ericksen RH (1985) Polymer 26: 733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Northolt MG, Kampschreur JH, Van der Zwaag S (1989) In: Integr Fund Polym Sci and Techn, vol 3, p 157, Lemstra PJ, Kleintjes LA (ed), Elsevier Appl Sci, LondonGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Northolt MG, Roos A, Kampschreur JH (1989) J Polym Sci Phys ed 27: 1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kuhn W, Kunzle O, Preismann A (1947) Helv Chim Acta 30: 307Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kuhn W, Kunzle O, Preismann A (1947) Helv Chim Acta 30: 464Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Frosini V, Butta E (1971) J Polym Sci Lett edn 9: 253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kunugi T, Watanabe H, Hashimoto M (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 24: 1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Pottick LA, Allen SR, Farris RJ (1984) J Appl Pol Sci 29: 3915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Rojstaczer S, Cohn D, Marom G (1984) J Mater Sci Lett 3: 1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Rojstaczer S, Cohn D, Marom G (1985) J Mater Sci Lett 4: 1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kelly A (1973) Strong solids, 2nd ed, Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Weibull W (1939) Ingen Vetensk Akad Handl 151: 5Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Weibull W (1951) J Appl Mech 18: 293Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Van der Zwaag S, (1989) J Testing and Evaluation 17: 292Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Van der Zwaag S, Elkink F, Submitted to J. Mater SciGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Griffith AA (1920) Phil Trans Roy Soc A221: 163Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kinloch AJ, Young RJ (1983) Fracture behaviour of polymers, Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Wu HF, Phoenix SL, Schwartz P (1988) J Mat Sci 23: 1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Aoki H, Onogi Y, White JL, Fellers JF (1980) Polym Eng Sci 20: 221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Bodaghi H, Kaito T, Flood JE, Fellers JF, White JL (1984) Polym Eng Sci 24: 242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Feldman L, Farris RJ, Thomas EL (1985) J Mater Sci 20: 2719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Greenwood JH, Rose PG (1974) J Mater Sci 9: 1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Konopasek L, Hearle JWS (1977) J Appl Polym Sci 21: 2791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Dobb M, Johnson DJ, Saville BP (1981) Polymer 22: 960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Northolt MG (1981) J Mater Sci Lett 16: 2025Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Takahashi T, Miura M, Sakurai K (1983) J Appl Polym Sci 28: 579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Allen SR (1987) J Mater Sci 22: 853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Van der Zwaag S, Kampschoer G (1988) In: Integr Fund Polym Sci and Techn, vol 2, p 545, Lemstra PJ, Kleintjes LA (ed), Elsevier Appl Sci, LondonGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Van der Zwaag S, Picken SJ, Van Sluijs CP (1989) In: Integr Fund Polym Sci and Techn, vol 3, p 199, Lemstra PJ, Kleintjes LA (ed), Elsevier Appl Sci, LondonGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Van Dreumel WHM (1982) Report LR-341, Dept Aerospace Eng, Delft Univ of Techn, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Van Dreumel WHM (1982) Report LR-356, Dept Aerospace Eng, Delft Univ of Techn, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Brown JR, Ennis BC (1977) Text Res J 47: 62Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Witteveen AJ, Akzo Res Lab, Unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Butta E, de Petris S, Frosini V, Pasquini M (1971) Eur Polym J 7: 387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Wilfong RE, Zimmerman J (1973) J Appl Polym Sci 17: 2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Penn L, Larsen F (1979) J Appl Polym Sci 23: 59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Chaudhuri AK, Min BY, Pearce EM (1980) J Polym Sci, Chem edn 18: 2949Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Khanna YP, Pearce EM (1982) J Appl Polym Sci 27: 2053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Twaron technical documentation, Akzo, Division of Fibres and Polymers, Arnhem, The Netherlands, 1985Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Van der Zwaag S, Akzo Res Lab, Unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Picken S, Van der Zwaag S, Northolt MG, To be publishedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. G. Northolt
    • 1
  • D. J. Sikkema
    • 1
  1. 1.Akzo Research LaboratoriesArnhemThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations