Analysis of the Sensitivity Attack against Electronic Watermarks in Images
In some applications of electronic watermarks, the device that detects whether content contains a watermark or not is in public domain. Attackers can misuse such detector as an oracle that reveals up to one bit of information about the watermark in each experiment. An information-theoretical analysis of the information leakage is provided, and a method is proposed to reduce the information leakage by orders of magnitude.
keywordsCryptanalysis Copy Protection Electronic Watermarks
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.I.J. Cox and J.M.P.G. Linnartz. “Public watermarks and resistance to tampering”. ICIP 97.Google Scholar
- 2.W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and A. Lu. “Techniques for data hiding”. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 35.(3/4), 1996.Google Scholar
- 3.I.J. Cox, J. Kilian, F.T. Leighton and T. Shamoon. “A secure, robust watermark for multimedia”. In Information Hiding: First Int. Workshop Proc., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 1174, R. Anderson, ed., Springer-Verlag, pages 185–206, 1996.Google Scholar
- 4.J.P.M.G. Linnartz, A.C.C. Kalker, G.F. Depovere, and R. Beuker. “A reliability model for detection of electronic watermarks in digital images”. In Proc. Benelux Symposium on Communication Theory, Enschede, October, pages 202–208, 1997.Google Scholar
- 5.I. Pitas and T.H. Kaskalis. “Signature casting on digital images”. In Proc. IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing, Neos Marmaras, June, 1995.Google Scholar
- 6.J.R. Smith and B.O. Comiskey. “Modulation and information hiding in images”. In Information Hiding: First Int. Workshop Proc., Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 1174, R. Anderson, ed., Springer-Verlag, pages 207–226, 1996.Google Scholar
- 7.A.B. Watson. “Digital Images and Human Vision”. The MIT Press, 1993.Google Scholar
- 8.T. Kalker. “Watermark estimation through detector observations”. In Proceedings of the IEEE Benelux Signal Processing Symposium, Leuven, March, pages 119–122, 1995.Google Scholar
- 9.J.-P. Linnartz, T. Kalker, G. Depovere. “Modelling the false alarm and missed detection rate for electronic watermarks”. In Proceedings of this Workshop.Google Scholar
- 10.T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas. “Elements of Information Theory”. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1991.Google Scholar