Shedding More Light on Image Watermarks

  • Juan Ramón Hernández
  • Fernando Pérez-González
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1525)


In this paper a general model of a watermarking system for copyright protection of outputs from an arbitrary source is presented. This model is proposed as a framework for an information-theoretical analysis of watermarking schemes. The main elements which comprise such schemes are described, performance measures are defined and important issues such as imperceptibility, robustness and cryptographic security are discussed. The application of concepts such as channel capacity, authentication and secrecy in the context of watermarking is also discussed. As a particular case, a spatial-domain image watermarking system based on direct sequence spread spectrum modulation techniques is described. Special enphasis is placed in discussing the analogies and differences between spread spectrum communication systems and watermarking applications.


Image Watermark Spread Spectrum Watermark Scheme Pseudorandom Sequence Synchronization Algorithm 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Ramón Hernández
    • 1
  • Fernando Pérez-González
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Tecnoloxías das Comunicacións E.T.S.I. TelecomunicaciónUniversidad de Vigo, VigoPontevedraSpain

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