Conceptual Design of Parallel Systems

  • Jacky Akoka
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1565)

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present a parallel object-oriented design method which integrates both object orientation and parallelism. The concept of object-orientation has initially emerged from programming. It has evolved to become a conceptual approach. In this paper, object-orientation is seen as a mean of conceptual modelling. Parallelism is seen as a source of structural simplicity in the conceptual design phase. It is the cornerstone of communication between objects. Our approach is characterized by objectorientation and concurrency. It can be summarized by the following points:
  • The design method allows us to identify the objects, their relationships, events, and messages.

  • Its underlying model is represented as a collection of concurrently executable objects. The latter are the primal agents of the information system and can be entities and/or relationships. The objects can be manipulated by actions which are seen as public or private methods.

  • The interactions among the components of the parallel system are represented as message transmissions among objects. The messages are one way to manage parallelism. In this paper, parallelism can also be managed by cardinalities and/or integrity constraints.

  • The design method and its underlying model present an adequate formalism in which various concurrent activities, interactions between objects, and inheritance mechanism are expressed naturally.

Several constructs are presented to show how the design method can take into account different types of parallelism problems. These constructs are illustrated by examples. The design method is not specific to databases and can be applied to concurrent systems design.

Keywords

object message parallelism data model concurrency design method 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [Acc86]
    M. Accetta, R. Baron, W. Bolosky, D. Golub, E. Rashid, A. Tevanian, and M. Young, “Mach: A New Kernel Foundation for Unix Development”, Summer Usenix Conference, Atlanta GA, 1986.Google Scholar
  2. [Agh93]
    G. Agha, S. Frolund, R. Panwar, D. Sturman, “A Linguistic Framework for Dynamic Composition of Dependability Protocols”, Dependable Computing for Critical Applications III (DCCA-3), IFIP Transactions, Elsevier, 1993.Google Scholar
  3. [Ako92]
    J. Akoka, R. Oudrhiri, “La Modélisation des Systèmes d’Information Complexes: l’Approche Objet ”, Brises, no17, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. [Ako94]
    J. Akoka, “POOM: A Parallel Object-Oriented Model ”, Computer Science Advanced Research Colloquium, Jerusalem (Israël), 1994.Google Scholar
  5. [Ame87]
    P. America, “POOL-T: A Parallel Object-Oriented Language”, [Yon87].Google Scholar
  6. [Ber87]
    P. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman, Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems, Addison Wesley, 1987.Google Scholar
  7. [Boc90]
    M. Bouzeghoub, I. Comyn-Wattiau, “View Integration by Semantic Verification and Transformation of Data Structures”,9th Int. Conf. on Entity-Relationship Approach, Lausanne, 1990.Google Scholar
  8. [Boo91]
    G. Booch, Object-Oriented Design with Application, Benjamin Cummings, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. [Brg96]
    J.P. Briot, R. Guerraoui, “Objets pour la programmation parallèle et répartie: intérêts, évolutions et tendances”, Technique et Science Informatique, Vol. 15, no 6, 1996.Google Scholar
  10. [Cam93]
    R. Campbell, N. Islam, D. Raila, and P. Madany, “Designing and Implementing Choices: An Object-Oriented System in C++”, [Mey93].Google Scholar
  11. [Car93]
    D. Caromel, “Towards a Method of Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming”, [Mey93].Google Scholar
  12. [Che76]
    P.P. Chen, “The Entity Relationship Model: Toward a Unified View of Data”, ACM Transactions an Database Systems, Volume 1, no 1, 1976.Google Scholar
  13. [Deg92]
    D. Dewitt, J. Gray, “Parallel Database Systems: The Future of High Performance Databases Systems”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 35, no 6, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. [Emb92]
    D.W. Embley, B.D. Kurtz, S.N. Woodfield, Object-Oriented Systems Analysis-A model-Driven Approach, Yourdon Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  15. [Gol83]
    A. Goldberg, and D. Robson, Smalltakll-80: the Language and its Implementation, Series in Computer Science, Addison Wesley, 1983.Google Scholar
  16. [Grw89]
    G. Graefe, K. Ward, “Dynamic Query Evaluation Plans, in Proceedings of the 1989 SIGMOD Conference, Portland Ore. June 1989.Google Scholar
  17. [Gue92]
    R. Guerraoui, R. Capobianchi, A. Lanusse, and P. Roux, “Nesting Actions Through Asynchronous Message Passing: the ACS Protocol”, European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming (ECOOP’ 92), Lehrmann Madsen (eds.) LNCS, no 615, Springer-Verlag, 1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [Hoa85]
    C.A.R. Hoare, Communicating Sequential Processes, Prentice-Hall, 1985.Google Scholar
  19. [Hul91]
    K.A. Hua, C. Lee, “Handling Data Skew in Multiprocessor database Computers using partition Tuning ”, in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 1991.Google Scholar
  20. [Jul94]
    E. Jul, “Separation of Distribution and Objects” [Gue94].Google Scholar
  21. [Kas91a]
    G. Kappel, M. Schrefl, “Using an Object-Oriented Diagram Technique for the Design of Information Systems”, in Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Dynamic Modelling of Information Systems, (eds.) H.G. Sol, K.M. Van Hee, 1991.`Google Scholar
  22. [Kas91b]
    G. Kappel and M. Schrefl, “Object/Behavior Diagrams”, in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. IEEE Data Engineering, 1991.Google Scholar
  23. [Kic94]
    G. Kiczales (editor), “Foil For The Workshop On Open Implementation”, “http://www.parc.xerox.com/PARC/spl/eca/oi/workshop-94/foil/main.html ”, 1994.
  24. [Lel97]
    M.L. Lee, T.W. Ling, “Resolving Constraint Conflicts in the Integration of Entity-Relationship Schemas”, 16th Int. Conf. on Conceptual Modelling, L.A., Ca. 1997. Springer Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Embley and Goldstein (eds.).Google Scholar
  25. [Lie87]
    H. Lieberman, “Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming in Act 1”, [Yon87].Google Scholar
  26. [Mae87]
    P. Maes, “Concepts and Experiments in Computational Reflection”, ACM Conference on Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications (OOPSLA’ 87), Special Issue of Sigplan Notices, Vol. 22, no 12, 1987.Google Scholar
  27. [Mey93]
    B. Meyer (editor), Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming: Special Issue, Communications of the ACM (CACM), Vol. 36, no 9, 1993.Google Scholar
  28. [Mgo92]
    J. Martin, J.J. Odell, Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall, 1992.Google Scholar
  29. [Nic93]
    J. Nicol, T. Wilkes, and F. Manola, “Object-Orientation in Heterogeneous Distributed Computing Systems”, IEEE Computer, Vol 26, no 6, 1993.Google Scholar
  30. [Roz92]
    M. Rozier, “Chorus”, Usenix Symposium on Micro-Kernels and Other Kernel Architectures, 1992.Google Scholar
  31. [Rum91]
    J. Rumbaugh, M. Blaha, W. Premerlani, F. Eddy, W. Lorensen, Object-Oriented Modelling and Design, Prentice-Hall, 1991.Google Scholar
  32. [Saa94]
    G. Saake, P. Hartel, R. Jungclaus, R. Wieringa, R. Feenstra, “Inheritance Conditions for Object Life Cycle Diagrams”, in EMISA Workshop, 1994.Google Scholar
  33. [Scs95]
    M. Schrefl and M. Stumptner, “Behavior Consistent Extension of Object Life Cycles”, in Proceedings OO-ER 95, Springer LCNS 1021, 1995.Google Scholar
  34. [Scs97]
    M. Schrefl, M. Stumptner, “Behavior Consistent Refinement of Object Life Cycle”, Institutsbericht, Inst. für Wirtschaftsinformatik, Universität Linz, Austria, 1997.Google Scholar
  35. [Yon87]
    A. Yonezawa, and M. Tokoro, Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming, Computer Systems Series, MIT Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  36. [Yon90]
    A. Yonezawa, ABCL: an Object-Oriented Concurrent System, Computer System Series, MIT-Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  37. [Zac87]
    J.A. Zachman, “A Framework for Information Systems Architecture”, IBM Systems Journal 26, no 3-276-292, 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacky Akoka
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales (ESSEC)CERGYFrance

Personalised recommendations