Imaging of Polymers Using Scanning Force Microscopy: From Superstructures to Individual Molecules

  • Sergei S. Sheiko
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 151)


This review article describes progress made in scanning force microscopy of polymers during the last 5 years including fundamental principles of SFM and recent developments in instrumentation relevant to polymer systems. It focuses on the analytical capabilities of SFM techniques in areas of research where they give the most unique and valuable information not accessible by other methods. These include (i) quantitative characterisation of material properties and structure manipulation on the nanometer scale, and (ii) visualisation and probing of single macromolecules.


scanning force microscopy polymers single macromolecules thin films 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A, Roux D (eds) (1994) Micelles, membranes, microemulsions, and monolayers. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodwin JW, Buscall R (eds) (1995) Colloidal polymer particles. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jöponsson B, Lindman B, Holmberg K, Kronberg B (1998) Surfactants and polymers in aqueous solution. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ikada Y, Uyama Y (1993) Lubricating polymer purfaces. Technomic, BaselGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wool RP (1995) Polymer interfaces: structure and strength. Hanser, MunichGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berg JC (ed) (1993) Wettability. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scheirs J (ed) (1997) Modern fluoropolymers: high performance polymers for diverse applications. Wiley Series in Polymer Science. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singhi R, Kumar A, Lopez GP, Stephanopoulos GN, Wang DIC, Whitesides GM, Ingber DE (1994) Science 264:696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aksay IA, Trau M, Manne S, Honma I, Yao N, Zhou L, Fenter P, Eisenberg PM, Gruner SM (1996) Science 273:892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Russell TP (1996) Curr Opin Colloid and Interface Sci 1:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Park M, Harrison C, Chaikin PM, Register RA, Adamson DH (1997) Science 276:1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Möller M, Spatz JP (1997) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2:177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Muthukumar M, Ober CK, Thomas EL (1997) Science 277:1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ober CK, Wegner G (1997) Adv Mater 9:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruokolainen J, Mäkinen R, Torkkeli M, Mäkelä T, Serimaa R, ten Brinke G, Ikkala O (1998) 280:557Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Böltau M, Walheim S, Mlynek J, Krausch G, Steiner U (1998) Nature 391:877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rabe JP (1998) Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 3:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ulrich R, Chesne AD, Templin M, Wiesner U (1999) Adv Mater 11:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mann S (1996) Biomimetic materials chemistry. VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ball P (1997) Made to measure. New materials for 21st century. Prinecton University Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fendler JH (1998) Nanoparticles and nanostructured films: preparation, characterization and applications. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ito H, Reichmanis E, Nalamasu O, Ueno T (eds) (1998) Micro-and nanopatterning polymers. ACS Symposium Series 706. American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Timp G (ed) (1999) Nanotechnology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yamashita Y (ed) (1993) Chemistry and industry of macromonomers. Hüthig & Wepf Verlag, Basel Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brintzinger HH, Fischer D, Mülhaupt R, Rieger B, Waymouth RM (1995) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 34:1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Newkome GR, Moorefield CN, Vögtle F (eds) (1996) Dendritic molecules. concept, synthesis, perspectives. VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matyjaszewski K (ed) (1998) Controlled radical polymerization. ACS Symposium Series 685. American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fredrickson GH, Bates FS (1996) Ann Rev Mater Sci 26:501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jung K, Abetz V, Stadler R (1996) Macromolecules 29:1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Antonietti M, Förster S (1998) Adv Mater 10:195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hajduk DA, Harper PG, Gruner SM, Honeker LC, Kim G, Thomas EL, Fetters LJ (1994) Macromolecules 27:4063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Radzilowski LH, Carragher BO, Stupp SI (1997) Macromolecules 30:2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu G (1998) Curr Opin in Colloid and Interface Sci 3:200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dvornic PR, Tomalia DA (1996) Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 1:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fréchet JMJ, Hawker CJ, Gitsov I, Leon JW (1996) JMS-Pure Appl Chem A33:1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sheiko SS, Gauthier M, Möller M (1997) Macromolecules 30:2343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Percec V, Ahn C-H, Cho W-D, Jamieson AM, Kim J, Leman T, Schmidt M, Gerle M, Möller M, Prokhorova SA, Sheiko SS, Cheng SZD, Zhang A, Ungar G, Yeardley DJP (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:8619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dziezok P, Sheiko SS, Fischer K, Schmidt M, Möller M (1997) Angew Chemie Int Ed Engl 109:2812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alberts B, Bray D, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Watson JD (1994) Molecular biology of the cell. 3rd Ed. Garlan Publishing Inc. New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alivisatos AP, Johnsson KP, Peng X, Wilson TE, Loweth CJ, Bruchez Jr. MP, Schulz PG (1996) Nature 382:609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL, Mucic RC, Storhoff JJ (1996) Nature 382:607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wetzig K, Schulze D (1995) In situ scanning electron microscopy in materials research. Akademie Verlag, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brune D, Hellborg R, Whitlow HJ, Hunderi O (1997) Surface characterization. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Amelinckx S, van Dyck D, van Landuyt J, van Tendeloo G (eds) (1997) Handbook of microscopy. VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Woodward AE (1989) Atlas of polymer morphology. Hanser, Munich Vienna New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hooke R (1665) Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses. Martyn and Allestry, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Abbe E (1873) Arch Mikrosk Anat 9:413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wilson T (ed) (1990) Confocal Microscopy. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ruska E (1933) Z Phys 83:684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Binnig G, Rohrer H, Gerber Ch, Weibel E (1982) Phys Rev Lett 49:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bonnell DA (ed) (1993) Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy: theory, techniques, and applications. VCH, New York WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Marti O (1993) SXM: an introduction. In: STM and SFM in biology. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sarid D (1994) Scanning force microscopy. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Güntherodt HJ, Weisendanger R (eds) Scanning tunneling microscopy III. Springer Series in Surface Sciences 29, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fillard JP (1996) Near field optics and nanoscopy. World Scientific, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Paesler M, Moyer PJ (1996) Near field optics: theory, instrumentation and applications. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Colton RJ, Engel A, Frommer JE, Gaub HE, Gewirth AA, Guckenberger R, Rabe J, Heckl WM, Parkinson B (eds) (1998) Procedures in scanning probe microscopies. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Magonov SN, Whangbo M-H (1996) Surface analysis with STM and AFM. VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Frommer J (1992) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 104:1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    MaMaster TJ, Carr HJ, Miles MJ, Cairno P, Morris VJ (1991) Macromolecules 24:1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rabe JP, Buchholz S (1991) Phys Rev Lett 66:2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Williamson RL, Miles MJ (1996) SPIE Proceeding 2535:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sandoghdar V, Wegscheider S, Krausch G, Mlynek J (1997) J Appl Phys 81:2499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Binnig G, Quate CF, Gerber Ch. (1986) Phys Rev Lett 56:930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Magonov SN, Reineker DH (1997) Annu Rev Mater Sci 27:175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tsukruk VV (1997) Rubber Chemistry and Technology 70:430Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ratner BD, Tsukruk VV (eds) (1998) Scanning probe microscopy of polymers. ACS Symposium Series 694. American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jandt KD (1998) Mater Sci Eng R21:221Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kajiyama T, Tanka K, Ge S-R, Takahara AT (1996) Progress in Surface Science 52:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Burnham NA, Colton RJ (1993) Force microscopy. In: Bonnell DA (ed) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Theory, Techniques, and Applications. VCH, New York WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lindsay SM (1993) Biological applications of the scanning probe microscope. In: Bonnell DA (ed) Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy:theory, techniques, and applications. VCH, New York WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meyer E, Heinzelmann H (1996) Scanning force microscopy. In: Güntherodt HJ, Weisendanger R (eds) Scanning tunneling microscopy II. Springer series in surface sciences 28, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 99Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Israelachvili JN, Tabor D (1972) Proc R Soc Lond A 331:19Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Klein J (1980) Nature 288:248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Williamson JPB (1967) Proc Inst Mech Eng London 182:21Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Clayton TE, Scire FE, Baker SM, Jensen SW (1982) Wear 83:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Israelachvili J (1992) Intermolecular & Surface Forces. 2d ed. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Adamson AW (1995) Physical chemistry of surfaces, 5th edn. Wiley, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hertz H (1881) J Reine Angew Math 92:156Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Johnson KL, Kendall K, Roberts AD (1971) Proc R Soc London A 324:301Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Derjaguin BV, Muller VM, Toporov YP (1975) J Coll Interface Sci 53:314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maugis D (1992) J Coll Interf Sci 150:243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dugdale DS (1960) J Mech Phys Solids 8:100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Magonov SN, Sheiko SS, Debliek RAC, Möller (1993) Macromolecules 26:1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vancso GJ (1996) Polym Prepr (Am Chem Soc, Div Polym Chem) 37:550Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Meyer G, Amer NM (1988) Appl Phys Lett 53:2400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Alexander S, Hellemans L, Marti O, Schneier J, Elings V, Hasma PK, Longmire M, Gurley J (1989) J Appl Phys 65:164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mate CM, McClelland GM, Erlandsson R, Chiang S (1987) Phys Rev Lett 59:1942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Meyer G, Amer NM (1990) Appl Phys Lett 57:2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Marti O, Colchero J, Mlynek J (1990) Nanotechnology 1:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Martin Y, Williams CC, Wickramasinghe HK (1989) J Appl Phys 61:4723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Senden TJ, Drummond CJ, Kékicheff P (1994) Langmuir 10:358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Manne S, Cleveland JP, Gaub HE, Stucky GD, Hansma PK (1994) Langmuir 10:4409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sarid D, Elings V (1991) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Meyer E (1992) Prog Surf Sci 41:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hölscher H, Schwarz DU, Zwörner O, Wiesendanger R (1998) Phys Rev B 57:2477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jarvis SP, Yamada H, Yamamotio S-I, Tokumoto H, Pethica JB (1996) Nature 384:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bammerlin M, Lüthi R, Meyer E, Baratoff A, Lü J, Guggisberg M, Loppacher C, Gerber C, Güntherodt HJ (1998) Appl Phys A 66:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hu J, Xiao X-D, Salmeron M (1995) Appl Phys Lett 67:476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kikukawa A, Hosaka S, Honda, Imura R (1995) Rev Sci Instrum 66:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Zhong Q, Innis D, Kjoller K, Elings VB (1993) Surf Sci Lett 290:L688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Whangbo M-H, Bar G, Brandsch R (1998) Surf Sci 411:L794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Rao SS (1995) Mecanical Vibrations. Addison-Wesley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bar G, Brandsch R, Whangbo M-H (1998) Surf Sci 411:L802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kühle A, Sorensen AH, Bohr J (1997) J Appl Phys 81:6562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bachelot R, Gleyzes P, Boccara AC (1998) Probe Microscopy 1:89Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Marth M, Maier D, Honerkamp J, Brandsch R, Bar G (1999) J Appl Phys 85:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Radmacher M, Tillmann RW, Gaub HE (1993) Biophys J 64:735Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Bar G, Thomann Y, Brandsch R, Cantow H-J, Whangbo M-H (1997) Langmuir 13:3807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Magonov SN, Elings V, Whangbo M-H (1997) Surf Sci 375:L385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Noy A, Sanders CH, Vezenov DV, Wong SS, Lieber CM (1998) Langmuir 14:1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Krüger D, Anczykowski B, Fuchs H (1997) Annalen der Physik 6:341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Anczykowski B, Cleveland JP, Krüger D, Elings V, Fuchs H (1998) Appl Phys A 66:S885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Digital Instruments Inc. Santa Barbara, CA, USAGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS (1998) Bhushan B (ed) Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lantz MA, O’shea SJ, Welland ME, Johnson KL (1997) Phys Rev B 55:10776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kendall K (1994) Science 263:1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Carpick RW, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M (1997) Appl Phys Lett 70:1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lantz MA, O’shea SJ, Hoole ACF, Welland ME (1997) Appl Phys Lett 70:970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Johnson KL (1997) Proc R Soc London Ser A 453:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ferry JD (1980) Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Burnham NA, Kulik AJ, Gremaud G, Gallo P-J, Oulevey F (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Maivald P, Butt HJ, Gould SAC, Prater CB, Drake B, Gurley JA, Elings VB, Hansma PK (1991) Nanotechnology 2:103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Bar G, Rubin S, Parikh AN, Swanson BI, Zawodzinski TA, Whangbo M-H (1997) Langmuir 13:373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kajiyama T, Takata K, Ohki I, Ge S-R, Yoon J-S, Takahara (1994) Macromolecules 27:7932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Nysten B, Legras R, Costa J-L (1995) 78:5953Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Friedenberg MC, Mate CM (1996) Langmuir 12:6138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Galuska AA, Poulter RR, McElrath KO (1997) Surface and Interface Analysis 25:418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Radmacher M, Cleveland JP, Fritz M, Hansma HG, Hansma PK (1994) Biophys J 66:2159Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    O’shea SJ, Welland ME, Pethica JB (1994) Chem Phys Lett 223:336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Florin E-L, Radmacher M, Fleck B, Gaub HE (1994) Rev Sci Instrum 65:639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mazeran P-E, Loubet J-L (1997) Tribol Lett 3:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tanaka K, Taura A, Ge SR, Takahara A, Kajiyama T (1996) Macromolecules 29:3040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Burnham NA, Gremaud G, Kulik AJ, Gallo P-J, Oulevey F (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Overney RM, Leta DP, Pictroski CF, Rafailovich MH, Liu Y, Quinn J, Sokolov J, Eisenberg A, Overney G (1996) Phys Rev Lett 76:1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wahl KJ, Stepnowski SV, Unertl WN (1998) Tribol Lett 5:103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Overney RM, Takano H, Fujihira M (1994) Europhys Lett 26:443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Oulevey F, Gremaud G, Sémoroz, Kulik AJ, Burnham NA, Dupas E, Gourdon D (1998) Rev Sci Instrum 69:2085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hammische A, Reading M, Pollock HM, Song M, Hourston DJ (1996) Rev Sci Instrum 67:4268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Winkler RG, Spatz JP, Sheiko S, Möller M, Reineker P, Marti O (1996) Phys Rev 54:8908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sarid D, Ruskell TG, Workman RK, Chen D (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tamayo J, García R (1997) Appl Phys Lett 71:2394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Burnham NA, Behrend OP, Oulevey F, Gremaud G, Gallo P-J, Gourdon D, Dupas E, Kulik AJ, Pollock HM, Briggs GAD (1997) Nanotechnology 8:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cleveland JP, Anczykowski B, Schmid AE, Elings VB (1998) Appl Phys Lett 72:2613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Grütter P, Liu Y, LeBlanc P, Düring U (1997) Appl Phys Lett 71:279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Anczykowski B, Gotsmann B, Fuchs H, Cleveland JP, Elings VB (1999) Appl Surf Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Bar G, Brandsch R, Whangbo M-H (1999) Surf Sci 422:L192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cooke PM (1998) Anal Chem 70:385RCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Overney RM, Meyer E, Frommer, Brodbeck D, Lüthi R, Howald L, Güntherodt H-J, Fujihira M, Takano H, Gotoh Y (1992) Nature 359:133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Overney RM, Meyer E, Frommer, Güntherodt H-J (1994) 10:1281Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Frisbie CD, Roznay LF, Noy A, Wrighton MS, Lieber CM (1994) Science 265:2071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Akari S, Horn D, Keller W, Schrepp W (1995) Adv Mater 7:549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Berger CE, van der Werf KO, Kooyman RP, de Grooth BG, Greeve J (1995) Langmuir 11:4188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Frommer JE (1996) Thin Solid Films 273:112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Noy A, Vezenov DV, Lieber CM (1997) Annu Rev Mater 27:381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Van der Werf KO, Putman CAJ, Groth BG, Greve J (1994) Apll Phys Lett 65:1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Rosa A, Weilandt E, Hild S, Marti O (1997) Meas Sci and Technol 8:1Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Miyatani T, Horii M, Rosa A, Fujihira M, Marti O. (1997) Appl Phys Lett 71:2632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hild S, Krotil U, Marti O (1998) In: Bhushan B (ed) Tribology Issues and Opprtunities in MEMS. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 247Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Knoll B, Keilmann F (1999) Nature 399:134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hammiche A, Pollock HM, Song M, Hourston DJ (1996) J Meas Sci Technol 7:142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Nakagawa Y, Schäfer R, Güntherodt H-J (1998) Apll Phys Lett 73:2296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Berger R, Lang HP, Gerber Ch, Gimzewski JK, Fabian JH, Scandella L, Meyer E, Güntherodt H-J (1998) Chem Phys Lett 294:363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Poler CC, Zimmermann RM, Cox EC Langmuir (1995) 11:2689Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hörber JKH, Häberle W, Ohnesorge F, Binnig G, Lieibich HG, Czerney CP, Mahnel H, Mayr A (1992) Scanning Microsc 6:919Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Strausser YE, Heaton MG (1994) Am Lab 26:20Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Kamusewitz H, Keller M, Paul D (1995) Thin Solid Films 264:184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Beaglehole D, Christenson HK (1992) J Phys Chem 96:3395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hu J, Xiao X-D, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M (1995) Science 268:267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Yang G, Vesenka JP, Bustamante CJ (1996) Scanning 18:344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Colchero J, Storch A, Luna M, Herrero JG, Baró AM (1998) Langmuir 14:2230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Giessibl FJ Gerber Ch, Binnig G (1995) Science 267:68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Giessibl FJ, Gerber Ch, Binnig G (1992) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Neubauer G, Cohen SR, Horn D, Mate CM, McClelland GM (1990) Rev Sci Instr 61:2296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Germann GJ, Cohen SR, Neubauer G, McClelland GM, Seki H (1993) J Appl Phys 73:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Meyer G, Amer NM (1990) Appl Phys Lett 57:2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Weisenhorn AL, Hansma PK, Albrecht TR, Quate CF (1989) Appl Phys Lett 54:2651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Ducker WA, Senden TJ, Pashley RM (1992) Langmuir 8:1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Senden TJ, Drummond CJ, Kékichef P (1994) Langmuir 10:358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Meyer E, Howald L, Overney RM, Heinzelmann H, Frommer J, Güntherodt H-J, Wagner T, Schier H, Roth S (1991) Nature 349:398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Butt H-J, Downing KH, Hansma PK (1990) Biophys J 58:1473Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cleveland JP, Schäffer TE, Hansma PK (1995) Phys Rev B 52:R8692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Han W, Lindsay SM (1998) Appl Phys Lett 72:1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ohnesorge F, Binnig G (1993) Science 260:1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Putman CAJ, van der Werf KO, de Grooth BG, van Hulst NF, Greve J (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:2454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Hansma PK, Cleveland JP, Radmacher M, Walters DA, Hilner PE, Bezanilla M, Fritz M, Vie D, Hansma HJ, Prater CB, Massie J, Fukunada L, Gurley J, Elings V (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Lantz MA, O’shea SJ, Welland ME (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Anselmetti D, Dreier M, Lüthi R, Richmond T, Meyer E, Frommer J, Güntherodt H-J (1994) J Vac Sci Technol B 12:1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Putman CAJ, van der Werf KO, de Grooth BG, van Hulst NF, Greve J (1994) Biophys J 67:2454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Fritz M, Radmacher M, Cleveland JP, Allersma MW, Stewart RJ, Gieselmann R, Janmey P, Schmidt CF, Hansma PK (1995) Langmuir 11:3529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lee GU, Chrisey LA, Colton RJ (1994) Science 266:771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Walters DA, Cleveland JP, Thomson NH, Hansma PK, Wendman MA, Gurley G, Elings V (1996) Rev Sci Instrum 67:3583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Elmer FJ, Dreier M (1997) J Appl Phys 81:7709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Han W, Lindsay SM, Jing T (1996) Appl Phys Lett 69:4111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    O’shea SJ, Welland ME, Pethica JB (1994) Chem Phys Lett 223:336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Florin E-L, Radmacher M, Fleck B, Gaub HE (1994) Rev Sci Instrum 65:639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Albrecht TR, Akamine S, Carver TE, Quate CF (1990) J Vac Sci Technol A 8:3386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wolter O, Bayer T, Greschner J (1991) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Buser RA, Bruger J, de Rooij NF (1992) Ultramicroscopy42:1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Pechmann R, Köhler JM, Fritzsche W, Schaper A, Jovin TM (1994) Rev Sci Instrum 65:3702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Keller DJ, Chih-Chung C (1992) Surface Science 268:333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Keller D, Deputy D, Alduino A, Luo K (1992) Ultramicroscopy 42–44:1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Fischer BP, Wie MS, Chou SY (1993) J Vac Sci Technol B 11:2570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Tortonese M (1997) In: Cohen SH, Lightbody ML (eds) Atomic Force Microscopy / Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. Vol 2, Plenum, New York, p 147Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Linnenmann R, Gotszalk T, Rangelow IW, Dumania P, Oesterschulze EJ (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Akama Y, Nishimura E, Sakai A, Murakami H (1990) J Vac Sci Technol A 8:429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Hansma HG, Vesenka J, Siegerist C, Kelderman G, Morrett H, Sinsheimer RL, Elings V, Bustamante C, Hansma PK (1992) 256:1180Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Walters DA, Hampton D, Drake B, Hansma HG, Hansma PK (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Vasile MJ, Grigg DA, Griffith JE, Fitzgerald EA, Russell PE (1991) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:3569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ximen H, Russell PE (1992) Ultramicroscopy 42–44:1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Boisen A, Hansen O, Bouwstra S (1996) J Micromech Microeng 6:58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Fotino M (1992) Appl Phys Lett 60:2935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Dai H, Hafner JH, Rinzler AG, Colbert DT, Smalley RE (1996) Nature 384:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rutland MW, Senden TJ (1993) Langmuir 9:412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Whitesides GM, Laibinis PE (1990) Langmuir 6:87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Dubois LH, Nuzzo RG (1992) Annu Rev Phys Chem 43:437Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Frisbie CD, Noy A, Rozsnyai LF, Lieber CM, Wrighton MS (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:7943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Thomas RC, Tangyunyoung P, Houston JE, Michalske TA, Crooks RM (1994) J Phys Chem 98:4493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Nakagawa T, Ogawa K, Kurumizawa T, Ozaki S (1993) Jpn J Appl Phys 32:L294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Kumar A, Whitesides GM (1993) Appl Phys Lett 14:63Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Barrat A, Silberzahn P, Bourdieu L, Chatenay D (1992) Europhys Lett 20:633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Florin E-L, Moy VT, Gaub HE (1994) Science 264:415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Tsao Y-H, Evans DF, Wennerström H (1993) Science 262:547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Grütter P, Zimmermann-Edling W, Brodbeck DD (1992) Appl Phys Lett 60:2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sheiko SS, Möller M, Reuvekamp EMCM, Zandbergen HW (1994) Ultramicroscopy 53:371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Schwartz DU, Haefke H, Reimann P, Güntherodt H-J (1994) J Microsc 173:183Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Reiss G, Brückl H, Vancea J, Lecheler R, Hastreiter E (1991) J Appl Phys 70:523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Paik SM, Kim S, Schuller IK (1991) Phys Rev Lett B 44:3272Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Melmed AJ (1991) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Garnaes J, Kragh F, Morch KA, Tholen AR (1990) J Vac Sci Technol A 8:441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Grigg DA, Russell PE, Griffith JE, Vasile MJ, Fitzgerald EA (1992) Ultramicroscopy 42-44:1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Edenfeld KM, Jarausch KF, Stark TJ, Griffis DP, Russel PE (1994) J Vac Sci Technol B 12:3571Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Atamny F, Baiker A (1995) Surf Sci 323:L314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Vesenka J, Miller R, Henderson E (1994) Rev Sci Instrum 65:2249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Xu S, Arnsdorf MF (1994) J Microsc 173:199Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Sheiko SS, Möller M, Reuvekamp EMCM, Zandbergen HW (1993) Phys Rev B 48:5675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Carpick RW, Agrait N, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M(1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Gracias DH, Somorjai GA (1998) Macromolecules 31:1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Heuberger M, Dietler G, Schlapbach (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Weihs TP, Nawaz Z, Jarvis SP, Pethica JB (1991) Appl Phys Lett 59:3536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Pethica JB, Oliver WC (1987) Physica Scripta T19:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Jarvis SP, Pethica JB (1995) In: Güntherodt H-J, Anselmetti D, Meyer E (eds) Forces in Scanning Probe Methods. NATO ASI Series, Ser E, vol 286. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 105Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Pethica JB, Sutton AP (1988) J Vac Sci Technol A 6:2490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Colton RJ, Baker SM, Driscoll RJ, Youngquist MG, Baldeschwieler JD, Kaiser WJ (1988) J Vac Sci Technol A 6:349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Landman U, Luedke WD, Nitzan A (1989) Surf Sci Lett 10:L177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Overney RM, Takano H, Fujihira M, Paulus W, Ringsdorf H (1994) Phys Rev Lett 72:3546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Garnaes J, Schwarz DK, Viswanathan R, Zasadzinski JAN (1992) Nature 255:64Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Viswanathan R, Madsen LL, Schwartz DK, Zasadzinski JA (1995) Science 269:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Bourdieu L, Ronsin O, Chatenay D (1993) Science 259:798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Butt H-J, Seifert E, Bamberg E (1993) J Phys Chem 97:7316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Bustamante C, Keller D (1995) Physics Today December:32Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Hashimoto T, Tanaka H, Hasegawa H (1990) Macromolecules 23:4378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Matsen MW, Bates FS (1997) J Chem Phys 106:2436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Leibler L (1980) Macromolecules 13:1602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Semenov AN (1985) Sov Phys JETP 61:733Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Bates FS, Fredrickson GH (1990) Ann Rev Phys Chem 41:525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Fredrickson GH (1987) Macromolecules 20:2535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Turner MS, Rubinstein M, Marques CM (1994) Macromolecules 27:4986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Anastasiadis SH, Russell TP, Satija SK, Majkrzak CF (1989) Phys Rev Lett 62:1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Collin B, Chatenay D, Coulon G, Ausserre D, Gallot Y (1992) Macromolecules 25:1621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Ausserre D, Raghunathan VA, Maaloum M (1993) J Phys II (France) 3:1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Schull KR (1993) Macromolecules 26:2346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Liu Y, Zhao W, Zheng X, King A, Singh A, Rafailovich MH, Sokolov J, Dai KH, Kramer EJ, Schwarz SA, Gebizliouglu O, Sinha SK (1994) Macromolecules 27:4000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Leclére Ph, Lazzaroni R, Brédas JL, Yu JM, Dubois PH, Jérome R (1996) Langmuir 12:4317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Magonov SN, Cleveland J, Elings V, Denley D, Whangbo M-H (1997) Surface Sci 389:201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    McLean R, Sauer BB (1997)Macromolecules 30:8314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Pickering JP, Vancso GJ (1998) Polym Bull 40:549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Gattiglia E, Turturro A, Ricci D, Bonfiglio A (1995) Macromol Rapid Comm 16:919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Van Dijk MA, van der Berg R (1995) Macromolecules 28:6773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Kellog GJ, Walton DG, Mayes AM, Lambooy P, Russell TP, Gallagher PD, Satija SK (1996) Phys Rev Lett 76:2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Walton DG, Kellogg, Mayes AM, Lambooy P, Russell TP (1994) Macromolecules 27:6225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Lambooy P, Russell TP, Kellogg GJ, Mayes AM, Gallagher PD, Satija SK (1994) Phys Rev Lett 72:2899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Kikuchi M, Binder K (1994) J Chem Phys 101:3367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Picket GT, Balazs AC (1997) Macromolecules 30:3097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Reiter G Castelein G, Hoerner P, Riess G, Blumen A, Sommer J-U (1999) submitted to ScienceGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Spatz JP, Möller M, Noeske M, Behm J, Pietralla M (1997) Macromolecules 30:3874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Spatz JP, Eibeck P, Mößmer S, Möller, Herzog T, Ziemann P (1998) Adv Mater 10:849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Koutsos V, van der Vegte E, Pelletier E, Stamouli A, Hadziionaou G (1997) Langmuir 4719Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Potemkin II, Kramarenko EYu, Khokhlov AR, Winkler RG, Reineker P, Eibeck P, Spatz J, Möller M (1999) Langmuir (in press)Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Zhulina EB, Singh C, Balazs AC (1996) Macromolecules 29:6338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Russell TP (1995) communication at the workshop on September 18–21, KonstantzGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Heier J, Kramer EJ, Walheim S, Krausch G (1997) Macromolecules 30:6610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Morkved TL, Witzius P, Jaeger HM, Grier DG, Witten TA (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Morkved TL, LU M, Urbas AM, Ehricks EE, Jaeger HM, Mansky P, Russell TP (1996) Science 273:931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Tuzar Z, Kratochvil P (1993) In Surface and Colloid Science. (ed) Matijevic E. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Chu B (1995) Langmuir 11:414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Förster S, Zisenis M, Wenz E, Antonietti M (1996) J Chem Phys 104:9956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Yu Y, Zhang L, Eisenberg A (1998) Macromolecules 31:1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Spatz JP, Sheiko SS, Möller M (1996) Macromolecules 29:3220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Meiners JC, Quintel-Ritzi A, Mlynek J, Elbs H, Krausch G (1997) Macromolecules 30:4946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Spatz JP, Mö\mer S, Möller M (1996) Chem Europ J 1:1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Hempenius MA, Langeveld BMW, van Haare JAEH, Janssen RAJ, Sheiko SS, Spatz JP, Möller M, Meijer EW (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:2798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Spatz JP, Mö\mer S, Möller, Herzog T, Plettl A, Ziemann P (1998) J Luminescence 76–77:168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Spatz JP, Herzog T, Mö\mer S, Ziemann P, Möller (1999) Adv Mater 11:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Stocker W, Rabe JP, Abetz W, Stadler R (1996) Macromolecules 29:7502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Magerle R, Elbs H, Fukunage K, Sauer G, Stadler R, Krausch G (1999) Macromolecules 32:1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    de Gennes P-G (1985) Rev Mod Phys 57:827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Cazabat A-M (1987) Contemp Phys 28:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Leger L, Joanny JF (1992) Rep Prog Phys 55:431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Zhao W, Rafailovich MH, Sokolov J, Fetters LJ, Plano R, Sanyal Mk, Sinha K (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70:1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Leibler L, Ajdari A, Mourran A, Coulon G, Chatenay D (1994) In: Teramoto A, Kobayashi M, Norisuje T (eds) Ordering in Macromolecular Systems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Tanaka K, Takahara A, Kajiyama T (1998) Macromolecules 31:863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Robbins MO, Andelmann D, Joanny J-F (1991) Phys Rev A 43:4344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Israelachvili JN, McGuiggan P, Homola AM (1988) Science 240:189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Brochard F, de Gennes P-G (1984) J Phys Lett 45:L597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Bruinsma R (1990) Macromolecules 23:275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Silberzan P, Leger L (1992) Macromolecules 25:1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Valignat MP, Oshanin G, Villette S, Cazabat AM, Moreau M (1998) Phys Rev Lett 80:5377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Brochard F, di Meglio JM, Quéré D, de Gennes P-G (1991) Langmuir 7:335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Reiter G, Sharma A, Casoli A, David M-O, Khanna R, Auroy P (1999) Langmuir 15:2551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Joanny J-F, de Gennes P-G (1986) J Colloid Interface Sci 111:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Gaydos J, Neumann AW (1987) J Colloid Interface Sci 120:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Rieutord F, Salmeron M (1998) J Phys Chem B 102:3941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Tamayo J, García R (1996) Langmuir 12:4430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Sheiko SS, Eckert G, Ignat'eva G, Muzafarov AM, Spickermann J, Räder HJ, Möller M (1996) Macromol Rapid Comm 17:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Pompe T, Fery A, Herminghaus S (1998) Langmuir 14:2585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Boruvka L, Gaydos J, Neumann AW (1990) Colloids Surf 43:307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Drelich J (1996) Colloids & Surf A 116:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Sheiko SS, Muzafarov AM, Winkler RG, Getmanova EV, Eckert G, Reineker P (1997) Langmuir 13:4172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Zisman WA (1963) Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 55:18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Brochard F, Daillant J (1990) Can J Phys 68:1084Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    Reiter G (1993) Langmuir 9:1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Sheiko SS, Lermann E, Möller M (1996) Langmuir 12:4015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Sheiko SS, Krupers M, Slangen P-J, Möller M (1998) Polymer Prepr. 39(2):956Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Stange TG, Evans DF, Hendrickson WA (1997) Langmuir 13:4459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Krausch G, Hipp M, Böltau M, Marti O, Mlynek J (1995) Macromolecules 28:260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Kressler J, Wang C, Kammer HW (1997) Langmuir 13:4407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Jacobs K, Herminghaus S, Mecke KR (1998) Langmuir 14:965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Segalman R, Green PF (1999) Macromolecules 32:801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Ausserré D, Brochard-Wyart B, de Gennes P-G (1995) C.R.Acad. Sci. (Paris) Série II 320:131Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Feng Yi, Karim A, Weiss RA, Douglas JF, Han CC (1998) Macromolecules 31:484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Liu Y, Rafailovich MH, Sokolov J, Schwarz SA, Zhong X, Eisenberg A, Kramer EJ, Sauer BB, Satija S (1994) Phys Rev Lett 73:440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Long D, Ajdari A, Leibler L (1996) Langmuir 12:1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Reiter G, Auroy P, Auvray L (1996) Macromolecules 29:2150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Shull KR (1996) Macromolecules 29:8487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Kerle T, Cohen SR, Klein J (1997) Langmuir 13:6360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Kerle T, Yerushalmi-Rozen, Klein J (1998) Macromolecules 31:422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Andelmann D, Joanny J-F, Robbins MO (1988) Europhys Lett 7:731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Tidswell IM, Rabedeau TA, Pershan PS, Kosowsky SD (1991) Phys Rev Lett 66:2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Li Z, Tolan M, Höhr T, Kharas D, Qu S, Sokolov J, Rafailovich MH, Lorenz H, Kotthaus JP, Wang J, Sinha SK, Gibaud A (1998) Macromolecules 31:1915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Krausch G (1995) Mater Sci Eng Rep R14:1Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Kumar SK, Russell TP (1991) Macromolecules 24:3816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Zhao X, Zhao W, Sokolov J, Rafailovich MH, Schwarz SA, Wilkens BJ, Jones RAL, Kramer EJ (1991) Macromolecules 24:5591Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Jones RAL, Norton LJ, Kramer EJ, Bates FS, Wiltzius P (1991) Phys Rev Lett 66:1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Krausch G, Dai C-A, Kramer EJ, Marko JF, Bates FS (1993) Macromolecules 26:5566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Steiner U, Klein J, Eiser E, Budkowski A, Fetters LJ (1992) Science 258:1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Straub W, Bruder F, Brenn R, Krausch G, Bielefeldt H, Kirsch A, Marti O, Mlynek J, Marko JF (1995) Europhys Lett 29:353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Jandt KD, Heier J, Bates FS, Kramer EJ (1996) Langmuir 12:3716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Tanaka K, Yoon J-S, Takahara A, Kajiyama T (1995) Macromolecules 28:934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Müller-Boschbaum P, O’Neill SA, Affrossman S, Stamm M (1998) Macromolecules 31:5003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Steiner U, Klein J, Fetters LJ (1994) Phys Rev Lett 72:1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Walheim S, Böltau M, Mlynek J, Krausch G, Steiner U (1997) Macromolecules 30:4995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Sung L, Karim A, Douglas JF, Han CC (1996) Phys Rev Lett 76:4368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Keblinski P, Kumar SK, Maritan A, Koplik J, Banavar JR (1996) Phys Rev Lett 76:1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Ermi BD, Karim A, Douglas JF (1998) J Polym Sci, Polym Phys 36:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Karim A, Slawecki TM, Kumar SK, Douglas JF, Han CC, Russell TP, Liu Y, Rafailovich M (1998) Macromolecules 31:857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Mayes AM, Kumar SK (1997) MRS Bulletin 22:43Google Scholar
  358. 358.
    Jones RAL, Kramer EJ (1993) Polymer 34:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Jalbert C, Koberstein JT, Hariharan A, Kumar SK (1997) Macromolecules 30:4481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Lopez GP, Biebuyck HA, Frisbie CD, Whitesides GM (1993) Science 260:647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Gau H, Herminghaus S, Lenz P, Lipowsky R (1999) Science 283:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Krausch G, Kramer EJ, Rafailovich MH, Sokolov J (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:2655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Ermi BD, Nisato G, Douglas JF, Rogers JA, Karim A (1998) Phys Rev Lett 81:3900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Balazs AC, Huang K, McElwain P, Brady JE (1991) Macromolecules 24:714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    de Gennes P-G (1980) Macromolecules 13:1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Milner ST (1991) Science 251:905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Halperin A, Tirrell M, Lodge TP (1992) Adv Polym Sci 100:31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Tirrell M (1997) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2:70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Luckham PF (1996) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 1:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Gast AP (1996) Langmuir 12:4060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Klein J, Kumacheva E, Perahia D, Mahalu D, Warburg S (1994) Faraday Discuss 98:173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Claesson PM, Blomberg E, Frobert JC, Nylander T, Arbebrant T (1995) Adv Colloid Interface Sci 57:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Kilbey SM, Bates FS, Tirrell M, Yoshizawa H, Hill R, Israelachvili J (1995) Macromolecules 28:5626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Kuhl T, Guo YQ, Alderfer JL, Berman AD, Leckband D, Israelachvili J, Hui SW (1996) Langmuir 12:3003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Pelletier E, Lapique F, Montfort JP (1996) Colloid Surf 112:43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Abe T, Kurihara K, Higashi N, Niwa M (1995) J Phys Chem 99:1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Dahlgren M, Hollenberg H, Claesson P (1995) Langmuir 11:4480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Parsegian VA, Evans EA (1996) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 1:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Claesson PM, Edeth T, Bergeron V, Rutland MW (1996) Adv Colloid Interface Sci 67:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Smith SB, Cui Y, Bustamante C (1996) Science 271:795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Manne S, Gaub HE (1997) Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2:145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Butt HJ, Jaschke M, Ducker W (1995) Bioelectrochem Bioenerget 38:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Sader JE, Larson I, Mulvaney P, White LR (1995) Rev Sci Instr 66:3789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Cleveland JP, Manne S, Bocek D, Hansma PK (1993) Rev Sci Instr 64:403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Ducker WA, Senden TJ, Pashley RM (1991) Nature 353:239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Wood J, Sharma R (1995) Langmuir 11:4797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Chaudhury MK, Whitesides GM (1992) Science 255:1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Mate CM (1995) IBM J Res Develop 39:617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Noy A, Frisbie CD, Rozsnyai LF, Wrighton MS, Lieber CM (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:7943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Liu Y, Evans DF, Song Q, Graigner DW (1996) Langmuir 12:1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Thomas RC, Houston JE, Crooks RM, Kim T, Michalske TA (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:3830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Braithwaite GJC, Luckham PF (1997) J Chem Soc, Faraday Trans 93:1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Milling A, Mulvaney P, Larson I (1996) J Colloid Interface Sci 180:460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Raiteri R, Grattarola M, Butt HJ (1996) J Phys Chem 100:16700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Cai LL, Peanasky J, Granick S (1996) Trends Polym Sci 4:57Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Biggs S (1996) J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 92:2783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Zhulina E, Walker GC, Balazs AC (1998) Langmuir 14:4615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Grest GS, Lacasse M-D, Murat M (1997) MRS Bull 22:27Google Scholar
  399. 399.
    Roters A, Schimmel M, Rühe J, Johannsmann D (1998) Langmuir 15:3999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Zhang J, Uchida E, Uyama Y, Ikada Y (1997) J Colloid Interface Sci 188:431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Hudson JE, Abruna HD (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:6303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Hillier AC, Kim S, Bard AJ (1996) J Phys Chem 100:18808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Milling AJ, Biggs S (1995) J Colloid Interface Sci 170:604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Milling AJ (1996) J Phys Chem 100:8986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    O’shea SJ, Welland ME, Rayment T (1992) Appl Phys Lett 60:2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Klein J, Kumacheva E. (1995) Science 269:816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Horn RG, Hirz SJ, Hadziioannou GH, Frank CW, Catala JM (1989) J Chem Phys 90:6767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Ducker WA, XU Z, Israelachvili JN (1994) Langmuir 10:3279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Yang ACM, Terris B, Kunz M (1991) Macromolecules 24:6800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Sheiko SS, Kunz M, Möller M (1994) Polym Sci USSR 35:1609Google Scholar
  411. 411.
    Hild S, Gutmannsbauer W, Lüthi R, Fuhrmann J, Güntherodt H-J (1996) J Polym Sci:Part B Polym Phys 34:1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Carpick RW, Salmeron M (1997) Chem Rev 97:1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Overney RM (1995) Trends Polym Sci 3:359Google Scholar
  414. 414.
    Nyffenegger RM, Penner RM (1997) Chem Rev 97:1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Chizhik SA, Huang Z, Gorbunov VV, Myshkin NK, Tsukruk VV (1998) Langmuir 14:2606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Boschung E, Heuberger M, Dietler G (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:3566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Howard AJ, Rye RR, Houston JE (1996) J Appl Phys 79:1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Radmacher M, Fritz M, Kacher CM, Cleveland JP, Hansma PK (1996) Biophys J 70:556Google Scholar
  419. 419.
    Aimé JP, Gauthier S (1998) in Scanning Probe Microscopy of Polymers. ACS Symposium Series 694. Ratner BD, Tsukruk VV (eds) American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Nie H-Y, Motomatsu M, Mizutani W, Tokumoto H (1996) Thin Solid Films 273:143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Yamamoto S, Yamada H (1997) Langmuir 13:4861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Krim J (1996) Sci Am 275:74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Reiley TC, Fan L-S, Mamin HJ (1995) Microelectron Eng 27:495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Bhushan B, Kulkarni AV (1996) Thin Solid Films 278:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Bhushan B, Koinkar VN (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Haugstad G, Gladfelter WL, Jones RR (1996) J Vac Sci Technol A 14:1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Werts MPL, van der Vegte EW, Grayer V, Esselink E, Tsitsilianis C, Hadziioannou G (1998) Adv Mater 10:452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Koinkar VN, Bhushan B (1996) J Appl Phys 79:8071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Mueller A, Kowalewski T, Wooley KL (1998) Macromolecules 31:776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    Smith HI, Gaighead HG (1990) Physics Today Feb:24Google Scholar
  431. 431.
    Quate CF (1994) Surf Sci 299:980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Mamin HJ, Rugar D (1992) Appl Phys Lett 61:1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Avouris P (1995) Acc Chem Res 28:95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Kern DP (1994) Microelectron Eng 23:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Gimzewski JK, Joachim C, Schlittler RR, Langlais V, Tang H, Johannsen I (1998) Science 281:531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Gimzewski J (1998) Physics World 11:29Google Scholar
  437. 437.
    Kolb DM, Ullmann R, Will T (1997) Science 275:1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Kranz C, Ludwig M, Gaub HE, Schuhmann (1995) 7:38Google Scholar
  439. 439.
    Marrian CRK, Dobisz EA, Colton RJ (1991) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Albrecht TR, Quate CF (1987) J Appl Phys 62:2599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Snow ES, Juan WH, Pang SW, Campbell PM (1995) Appl Phys Lett 66:1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Teuschler T, Mahr K, Miyazaki S, Hundhausen M, Ley L (1995) Appl Phys Lett 7:3144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Gordon AE, Fayfield RT, Litfin DD, Higman TK (1995) J Vac Sci Technol B 13:2805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Tsau L, Wang D, Wang KL (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:2133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Avouris P, Hertel T, Martel R (1997) Appl Phys Lett 71:285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Kim Y-T, Bard AJ (1992) Lanmuir 8:1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Stockman L, Neuttiens G, van Haesendonck C, Bruynseraede Y (1993) Appl Phys Lett 62:2935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Schoer JK, Ross CB, Crooks RM, Corbitt TS, Hampden-Smith MJ (1994) Langmuir 10:615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Marrian CRK, Perkins FK, Brandow SL, Koloski TS, Dobisz EA, Calvert JM (1994) Appl Phys Lett 64:390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Xu LS, Alleee DR (1995) J Vac Sci Technol B 13:2837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Yaniv DR, MaCormick LD (1992) Nanotechnology 3:44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    Sasano K, Nakamura K, Kaneto K (1993) Jpn J Appl Phys 232:L863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. 453.
    Yang R, Evans DF, Hendrickson WA (1995) Langmuir 11:211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. 454.
    Borgwarth K, Ricken C, Ebling DG, Heinze J (1995) Bunsen Ges Phys Chem 99:1421Google Scholar
  455. 455.
    Nyffenegger R, Ammann E, Siegenthaler H, Kötz R (1995) Electrochim Acta 40:1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. 456.
    Tang SL, McGhie AJ, Lewittes ME (1992) Appl Phys Lett 60:1821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Wendel M, Kuhn S, Lorenz H, Kotthaus JP, Holland M (1994) Appl Phys Lett 65:1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    Göbel H, van Blanckenhagen P (1995) J Vac Sci Technol B 13:1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    Goto K, Hane K (1996) Rev Sci Instrum 67:397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    Jin X, Unertl WN (1992) Appl Phys Lett 61:657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Yamamoto S-I, Yamada H, Tokumoto H (1995) Jpn J Appl Phys 34:3396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Gorwadkar S, Vinogradov GK, Senda K, Morita S (1995) J Appl Phys 78:2242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Khurshudov A, Kato K (1995) J Vac Sci Technol B 13:1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. 464.
    Jung TA, Moser A, Hug HJ, Brodbeck D, Hofer R, Hidber HR, Schwarz DU (1992) Ul-tramicroscopy 42–44:1446Google Scholar
  465. 465.
    Wiesendanger R (1995) Jpn J Appl Phys 34:3388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    Jaschke M, Butt H-J (1995) Langmuir 11:1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    Bouju X, Joachim C, Girard C (1994) Phys Rev B 50:7893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. 468.
    Junno T, Deppert K, Montelius L, Samuelson L (1995) Appl Phys Lett 66:3627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. 469.
    Müller WT, Klein DL, Lee T, Clarke J, McEuen PL, Schultz PG (1995) Science 268:272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    Bhushan B, Israelachvili JN, Landman U (1995) Nature 374:607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    Feynman RP (1960) Engineering and Science Feb:22Google Scholar
  472. 472.
    Weissbuch I, Baxter PNW, Cohen S, Shubert US, Lehn J-M, Leiserowitz L (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:4850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    Whitesides GM, Simanek EE, Mathias JP, Seto CT, Chin DN, Mammen M, Gordon DM (1995) Acc Chem Res 28:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    McGrath KP, Fournier MJ, Mason TL, Tirell DA (1992) J Am Chem Soc 114:727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  475. 475.
    Hansma HG (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. 476.
    Bustamante C, Rivetti C, Keller DJ (1997) Curr Opin Struct Biol 7:709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. 477.
    Fritzsche W, Takac L, Henderson E (1997) Crit Rev Eukaryotic Gene Expression 7:231Google Scholar
  478. 478.
    Engel A, Schoenenberger CA, Müller DJ (1997) Curr Opin Struct Biol 7:279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. 479.
    Micas. Reviews in Mineralogy (1984) Bailey SW (ed) Chelsea Book Crafters, Inc.Google Scholar
  480. 480.
    Pashley RM (1981) J Colloid Interface Sci 80:153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. 481.
    Bustamante C, Rivetti C (1996) Annu Rev Biophys Struct 25:395Google Scholar
  482. 482.
    Bustamante C, Keller D, Yang G (1993) Curr Opin Struct Biol 3:363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. 483.
    Lyubchenko YL, Oden PI, Lampner D, Lindsay SM, Dunker KA (1993) Nucleic Acids Research 21:1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. 484.
    Schaper A, Starink JP, Jovin TM (1994) FEBS Lett 355:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. 485.
    Hansma HG, Bezanilla M, Zenhausern F, Adrian M, Sinsheimer RL (1993) Nucleic Acids Research 21:505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. 486.
    Zenhausern F, Adrian M, ten Heggeler-Bordier B, Eng LM, Descouts P (1992) Scanning 14:212Google Scholar
  487. 487.
    Hansma HG, Vesenka J, Siegerist C, Kelderman G, Morrett H, Sinsheimer RL, Elings V, Bustamante C, Hansma PK (1992) Science 256:1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. 488.
    Yang G, Vesenka JP, Bustamante CJ (1996) Scanning 18:344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. 489.
    Hansma HG, Sinsheimer RL, Groppe J, Bruice TC, Elings V, Gurley G, Bezanilla M, Mastrangelo IA, Hough PVC, Hansma PK (1993) Scanning 15:296Google Scholar
  490. 490.
    Leuba S, Yang G, Robert C, Samorí B, van Holde K, Zlatanova J, Bustamante C (1994) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:11621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. 491.
    Han W, Lindsay SM (1997) Nature 386:563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. 492.
    Hallett P, Tskhovrebova L, Trinick J, Offer G, Miles MJ (1996) J Vac Sci Technol B 14:1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. 493.
    Rivetti C, Guthold M, Bustamante C (1996) J Mol Biol 264:919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. 494.
    Kratky O, Porod G (1949) Recueil 68:1106Google Scholar
  495. 495.
    Schellman JA (1974) Biopolymers 13:217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. 496.
    Landau LD, Lifshitz EM (1980) Statistical Physics, Part 1. 3rd Ed, Pergamon Press, Oxford, NYGoogle Scholar
  497. 497.
    Grosberg AY, Khokhlov AR (1994) Statistical Physics of Macromolecules. API Press, Woodbury,NYGoogle Scholar
  498. 498.
    Bustamante C, Marko JF, Siggia ED, Smith S (1994) Science 265:1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. 499.
    Vasquez C, Kleinschmidt AK (1968) J Mol Biol 34:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. 500.
    Butt H-J, Downing KH, Hansma PK (1990) Biophys J 58:1473Google Scholar
  501. 501.
    Hoh JH, Sosinsky GE, Revel J-P, Hansma PK (1993) Biophys J 65:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. 502.
    Singh S, Turina P, Bustamante C, Keller DJ, Capaldi R (1996) FEBS Lett 397:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. 503.
    Takeyasu K, Omote H, Nettikadan S, Tokumasu T, Iwamoto-Kihara A, Futai M (1996) FEBS Lett 392:110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. 504.
    Mou J, Czajkowsky DM, Sheng SJ, Ho R, Shao Z (1996) FEBS Lett 381:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. 505.
    Mou J, Sheng S, Ho R, Shao Z (1996) Biophys J 71:2213Google Scholar
  506. 506.
    Braunstein D (1995) J Vac Sci Technol A 13:1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. 507.
    Zhu J, Hartman J, Case R, Rice S, Vale R (1998) Appl Note of Molecular Imaging Inc.
  508. 508.
    Haggerty L, Watson BA, Barteu MA, Lenhoff AM (1991) J Vac Sci Technol B 9:1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. 509.
    Yoshimura H (1997) Adv Biophys 34:93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. 510.
    Müller DJ, Schabert FA, Müldt G, Engel A (1996) Biophys J 68:1681Google Scholar
  511. 511.
    Müller JD, Baumeister W, Engel A (1996) J Bacteriol 178:3025Google Scholar
  512. 512.
    Podgornik R, Strey HH, Gawrisch K, Rau DC, Rupprecht A, Parsegian VA (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:4261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. 513.
    Fang Y, Yang J (1997) J Phys Chem B 101:441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  514. 514.
    Vater W, Bohm KJ, Unger E (1997) Cell Mobility an the Cytoskeleton 36:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    Anselmetti D, Dreier M, Lüthi R, Richmond T, Mayer E, Frommer J, Guntherodt H-J (1994) J Vac Sci Technol B 12:1500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. 516.
    Maeda H (1997) Langmuir 13:4150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. 517.
    Wadu-Mesthrige K, Pati B, McClain M, Liu G-Y (1996) Langmuir 12:3511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. 518.
    Kralchevsky K, Nagayama (1994) Langmuir 10:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. 519.
    Hansma HG, Laney DE, Revenko I, Kim K, Cleveland JP (1996) in Biological Structure and Dynamics. Sarma RH, Sarma MH (ed) Adenine Press, Albany NYGoogle Scholar
  520. 520.
    Lyubchenko YL, Shlyakhtenko LS (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. 521.
    Rippe K, Mucke N, Langowski J (1997) Nucleic Acids Res 25:1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. 522.
    Thomson NH, Fritz M, Radmacher M, Cleveland JP, Schmidt CF, Hansma PK (1996) Biophys J 70:2421Google Scholar
  523. 523.
    Erie D, Bustamante C (1995) Science 269:989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. 524.
    Wyman C, Rombel I, North AK, Bustamante C, Kustu S (1997) Science 275:1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. 525.
    Kasas S, Thomson NH, Smith BL, Hansma HG, Zhu X, Guthold M, Bustmante C, Kool ET, Kashlev M, Hansma PK (1997) Biochemistry 36:461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. 526.
    Zhu YJ, Han W, Dlakic M, Lindsay SM, Harrington RE (1998) Appl Note of Molecular Imaging Inc.
  527. 527.
    Roovers JJ (1991) Non.-Cryst. Solids 793:131Google Scholar
  528. 528.
    Gauthier M, Möller M (1991) Macromolecules 24:4548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. 529.
    Hempenius MA, Michelberger W, Möller M (1997) Macromolecules 30:5602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  530. 530.
    Wu J, Lieser G, Wegner G (1996) Adv Materials 8:151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. 531.
    Wintermantel M, Fischer K, Gerle M, Ries R, Schmidt M, Kajiwara K, Urakawa H, Wataoka I (1995) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 34:1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. 532.
    Beers KL, Gaynor SG, Matyjaszewski K, Sheiko SS, Möler M (1998) Macromolecules 31:9413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. 533.
    Karakaya B, Claussen W, Gessier K, Säanger W, Schlüter A-D (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:3296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. 534.
    Yin R, Zhu Y, Tomalia DA (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:2678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. 535.
    Zimmerman SC (1997) Curr Opin Coll Interf Sci 2:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. 536.
    Zhao M, Tokuhisa H, Crooks RM (1997) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 36:2596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. 537.
    Cooper AJ, Londono JD, Wignall G, McClain JB, Samulski ET, Lin JS, Dobrynin A, Rubinstein M, Burke ALC, Frechet JMJ (1997) Nature 389:368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. 538.
    Jansen JFGA, de Brabender-van der Berg EMM, Meijer EW (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:4417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. 539.
    Zhao M, Crooks RM (1999) Adv Mater 11:217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. 540.
    Deckman HW, Dunsmuir JH (1988) J Vac Sci Technol B 6:333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. 541.
    Burmeister F, Schaefle C, Mattes T, Boehmisch M, Boneberg J, Leiderer P (1997) Langmuir 13:2983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. 542.
    Wang PW, Liu YJ, Devadoss C, Bharathi P, Moore JS (1996) Adv Mater 8:237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. 543.
    Dandliker J, Diederich F, Gisselbrecht J-P, Louati A, Gross M (1995) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 34:2725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. 544.
    Albrecht M, van Koten G (1999) Adv Mater 11:171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. 545.
    Vasilenko NG, Rebrov EA, Muzafarov AM, E\wein B, Striegel B, Möller M (1998) Macromol. Chem. Phys 199:889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. 546.
    Leduc MR, Hawker CJ, Dao J, Frechet JMJ (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:11111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. 547.
    Burmeister F, Schaefle C, Keilhofer B, Bechinger C, Boneberg J, Leiderer P (1998) Adv Mater 10:495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. 548.
    Fendler JH (1996) Curr Opin Coll Interf Sci 1:202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  549. 549.
    Chevalier Y, Pichot C, Graillat C, Joanicot M, Wong K, Maquet J, Lindner, Cabane B (1992) Colloid Polym Sci 270:806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. 550.
    Dimitrov AS, Dushkin CD, Yoshimura H, Nagayama K (1994) Langmuir 10:432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. 551.
    Micheletto R, Fukuda H, Ohtsu M (1995) Langmuir 11:3333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. 552.
    Winnik MA (1997) Curr Opin Coll Interface Sci 2:192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. 553.
    Linemann RF, Malner TE, Brandsch R, Bar G, Ritter W, Mülhaupt R (1999) Langmuir in pressGoogle Scholar
  554. 554.
    Antonietti M, Basten R, Lohmann S (1995) Macromol Chem Phys 196:441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. 555.
    Johnson CA, Lenhoff AM (1996) J Coll Interface Sci 179:587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. 556.
    Stamou D, Liley M, Vogel H, Duschl C (1998) Polymer Prepr Am Chem Soc Polym Div 39(2):1161Google Scholar
  557. 557.
    Semmler M, Mann EK, Ricka J, Borkovec M (1998) Langmuir 14:5127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. 558.
    Adamczyk Z, Warszynski P (1996) Adv Coll Interf sci 63:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. 559.
    Mourey TH, Turner SR, Rubinstein M, Fréchet JMJ, Hawker CJ, Wooley KL (1992) Macromolecules 25:2401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. 560.
    Gauthier M, Möller M, Burchard W (1994) Macromol Symp 77:43Google Scholar
  561. 561.
    Hawker CJ, Farrington PJ, Mackay ME, Wooley KL, Fréchet JMJ (1995) J Am Chem Soc 117:4409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  562. 562.
    Hempenius MA, Zoetelief WF, Gauthier M, Möller M (1998) Macromolecules 31:2299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. 563.
    Jackson CL, Chanzy HD, Booy FP, Drake BJ, Tomalia DA, Bauer BJ, Amis EJ (1998) Macromolecules 31:6259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. 564.
    Coen MC, Lorenz K, Kressler J, Frey H, Mülhaupt R (1996) Macromolecules 29:8069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. 565.
    Wells M, Crooks RM (1996) J Am Chem Soc 118:3988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. 566.
    Saville PM, White JW, Hawker CJ, Wooley KL, Fréchet JMJ (1993) J Phys Chem 97:293 ibid. (1995) 99:8283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. 567.
    De Leuze-Jallouli AM, Swanson D, Dvornic PR, Perz SV, Owen MJ (1997) PMSE Proceedings 77:93Google Scholar
  568. 568.
    Sheiko SS, Buzin AI, Muzafarov AM, Rebrov EA, Getmanova EV (1998) Langmuir 14:7468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. 569.
    Tsukruk VV, Rinderspacher F, Bliznyuk VN (1997) Langmuir 13:2171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. 570.
    Takada K, Diaz DJ, Abruna HD, Cuadrado I, Casado C, Alonso B, Moran M, Losada J (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:10763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. 571.
    Watanabo S, Regen SL (1994) J Am Chem Soc 116:8855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. 572.
    Hierlemann A, Campbell JK, Baker LA, Crooks RM, Ricco AJ (1998) J Am Chem Soc 120:5323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. 573.
    Huck WTS, van Veggel FCJM, Sheiko SS, Möller M, Reinhoudt DN (1998) J Phys Org Chem 11:540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. 574.
    Mansfield ML (1996) Polymer 37:3835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. 575.
    Cao Y, Smith P (1993) Polymer 34:3139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  576. 576.
    Ruokolainen J, Torkkeli M, Serimaa R, Vahvaselkä S, Saariaho M, ten Brinke G (1996) Macromolecules 29:6621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  577. 577.
    Birshtein TM, Borisov OV, Zhulina EB, Khokhlov AR, Yurasova TA (1987) Polymer Sci. USSR 29:1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. 578.
    Fredrickson GH (1993) Macromolecules 26:2825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. 579.
    Saariaho M, Ikkala O, Szleifer I, Erukhimovich I, ten Brinke G (1997) J Chem Phys 107:3267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. 580.
    Wintermantel M, Schmidt M, Tsukahara Y, Kajiwara K, Kohjiya S (1994) Macromol Rapid Comm 15:279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. 581.
    Gerle M, Fischer K, Schmidt M, Roos S, Müller AHE, Sheiko SS, Prokhorova SA, Möller M (1999) Macromolecules 32:2629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  582. 582.
    Sheiko SS, Gerle M, Fischer K, Schmidt M, Möller M (1997) Langmuir 20:5368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. 583.
    Williams DRM (1993) J.Phys.II (France) 3:1313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. 584.
    Rouault Y, Borisov OV (1996) Macromolecules 29:2605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. 585.
    Soga KG, Guo H, Zuckermann MJ (1995) Europhys Lett 29:531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  586. 586.
    Zhulina E, Singh C, Balazs AC (1996) Macromolecules 29:6338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. 587.
    Siqueira DF, Kohler K, Stamm M (1995) Langmuir 11:3092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. 588.
    Stamouli A, Pelletier E, Koutsos V, van der Vegte E, Hadziionaou G (1996) Langmuir 3221Google Scholar
  589. 589.
    Sheiko SS, Borisov OV, Prokhorova SA, Schmidt U, Gerle M, Schmidt M, Möller M submitted to Phys Rev LettGoogle Scholar
  590. 590.
    Dobrynin AV, Rubinstein M, Obukhov SP (1996) Macromolecules 29:2974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. 591.
    Sheiko SS, Prokhorova SA, Schmidt U, Dziezok P, Schmidt M, Möller M (1999) in ACS Symposium Series 741, Tsukruk VV, Wahl K (ed) ACS Washington (to be published)Google Scholar
  592. 592.
    Balagurusamy VSK, Ungar G, Percec V, Johansson G (1997) J Am Chem Soc 119:1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. 593.
    Percec V, Ahn C-H, Ungar G, Yeardley DSP, Möller M, Sheiko SS (1998) Nature 391:161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. 594.
    Prokhorova SA, Sheiko SS, Möller M, Ahn C-H, Percec V (1998) Macromol Rapid Comm 19:359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. 595.
    Stocker W, Schürmann BL, Rabe JP, Förster S, Lindner P, Neubert I, Schlüter A-D (1998) Adv Mater 10:793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. 596.
    Prokhorova SA, Sheiko SS, Möller M, Ahn C-H, Percec V (1999) Macromolecules 32:2653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. 597.
    Kwon YK, Chvalun S, Scheider A-I, Blackwell S, Percec V, Heck JA (1994) Macromolecules 27:6129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  598. 598.
    Marko, J.F.; Siggia, E.D. Science 1994, 265:506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. 599.
    Marko, J.F.; Siggia, E.D. Physical Review E 1995, 52, 2912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. 600.
    McLeish, T. Science 1997, 278, 1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. 601.
    Strick TR, Allemand J-F, Bensimon D, Croquette V (1998) Biophys J 74:2016Google Scholar
  602. 602.
    Rabe JP Buchholz S (1991) Phys Rev Lett 66:2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  603. 603.
    Wavkuschewskij A, Cantow H-J, Magonov SN, Möller M, Liany W, Whanbo M-H (1995) Adv Mater 5:821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. 604.
    Bauerle P, Fischer T, Bidlingmeier B, Stabel A, Rabe JP (1995) Angew Chem Int. Ed Engl 34:303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. 605.
    Merkel R, Nassoy P, Leung A, Ritchie K, Evans E (1999) Nature 397:50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  606. 606.
    Cluzel P, Lebrun A, Heller C, Lavery R, Viovy J-L, Chatenay D, Caron F (1996) Science 271:792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. 607.
    Smith SB, Finzi L, Bustamante C (1992) Science 258:1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. 608.
    Perkins TT, Quake SR, Smith DE, Chu S (1994) Science 264:822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. 609.
    Wang MD, Yin H, Landick R, Gelles J, Block SM (1997) Biophys J 72:1335Google Scholar
  610. 610.
    Baumann CG, Smith SB, Bloomfield VA, Bustamante C (1997) Proc Nat Acad Sci 94:6185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. 611.
    Leckband DE, Israelachvili JN, Scmitt F-J, Knoll W (1992) Science 255:1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. 612.
    Hoh JN, Cleveland JP, Prater CB, Revel J-P, Hansma PK (1993) J Am Chem Soc 114:4917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  613. 613.
    Radmacher M, Fritz M, Hansma HG, Hansma PK (1994) Science 265:1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. 614.
    Perkins TT, Smith DE, Larson RG, Chu S (1995) Science 268:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  615. 615.
    Schurr JM, Smith SB (1990) 29:1161Google Scholar
  616. 616.
    Vologodskii A (1994) Macromolecules 27:5623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  617. 617.
    Marko JF, Siggia ED (1995) Macromolecules 28:8759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. 618.
    Moroz JD, Nelson P (1998) Macromolecules 31:6333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. 619.
    Lee GU, Kidwell DA, Colton RJ (1994) Langmuir 10:354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  620. 620.
    Lee GU, Chrisey LA, Colton RJ (1994) Science 266:771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  621. 621.
    Hendrikson WA, Pahler A, Smith JL, Satow Y, Merritt EA, Philazackerley RP (1989) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:2190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. 622.
    Rief M, Oesterhelt F, Heymann B, Gaub HE (1997) Science 275:1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  623. 623.
    Li H, Rief M, Oesterhelt F, Gaub HE (1998) Adv Mater 3:316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  624. 624.
    Labeit S (1990) Nature 345:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  625. 625.
    Pan KM, Damodaran S, Greaser ML (1994) Biochemistry 33:8255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  626. 626.
    Rief M, Gautel M, Oesterhelt F, Fernandez Jm, Gaub HE (1997) Science 276:1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  627. 627.
    Kellermayer MSZ, Smith SB, Granzier HL, Bustamante C (1997) Science 276:1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  628. 628.
    Nave R, Fürst DO, Weber K (1989) J Cell Biol 109:2177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  629. 629.
    Evans E, Ritchie K (1997) Biophys J 72:1541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  630. 630.
    Thundat T, Allison DP, Warmack RJ (1994) Nucleic Acids Res 22:4224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  631. 631.
    Bensimon D, Simon AJ, Croquette V, Bensimon A (1995) Phys Rev Lett 74:4754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  632. 632.
    Uchida E, Ikada Y (1997) Macromolecules 30:5464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  633. 633.
    Koutsos V, van der Vegte EW, Pelletier E, Stamouli A, Hadziioannou G (1997) Macromolecules 30:4719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  634. 634.
    Stamouli A, Pelletier E, Koutsos V, van der Vegte E, Hadziioannou G (1996) Langmuir 12:3221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  635. 635.
    Ortiz C, Hadziioannou G (1999) Macromolecules 32:780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  636. 636.
    Tang H, Cuberes MT, Joachim C, Gimzewski JK (1997) Surface Sci 386:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  637. 637.
    Gimzewski JK, Jung TA, Cuberes MT, Schlittler RR (1997) Surface Sci 386:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  638. 638.
    Heller EJ, Cromie MF, Lutz CP, Eigler DM (1994) Nature 369:464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  639. 639.
    Crommie MF, Lutz CP, Eigler DM, Heller EJ (1996) Surf Sci 361–362:864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  640. 640.
    Yazdani A, Eigler DM, Lang ND (1996) Science 272:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergei S. Sheiko
    • 1
  1. 1.Organische Chemie III / Makromolekulare ChemieUniversität UlmUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations