Advertisement

Achieving Fault-Tolerant Ordered Broadcasts in CAN

  • Jörg Kaiser
  • Mohammad Ali Livani
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1667)

Abstract

The paper focuses on the problem to guarantee reliable and ordered message delivery to the operational sites of a CAN-Bus network. The contributions of the paper are firstly a hardware mechanism to handle rare failure situations and secondly, a protocol to guarantee the same order of messages on all nodes. After analyzing the error handling mechanism, we suggest a hardware extension to capture situations, which may lead to inconsistent views about the status of a message between the nodes. Based on this mechanism, which enhances the guarantees of the CAN-Bus with respect to reliable message transmission, we develop a deadline-based total ordering scheme. By carefully exploiting the properties of CAN, this can be achieved with very low additional message overhead.

Keywords

Real-time communication fault-tolerance reliable broadcast CAN 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    ROBERT BOSCH GmbH: “CAN Specification Version 2.0”, Sep. 1991.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Rufino, P. Veríssimo, C. Almeida, L. Rodrigues: “Fault-Tolerant Broadcasts in CAN”, Proc. FTCS-28, Munich, Germany, June 1998.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    K.P. Birman and T.A. Joseph: “Reliable Communication in the Presence of Failures”, ACM Tr. Computer Systems, 5(1):47–76, Feb. 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.M. Chang and N.F. Maxemchuk: “Reliable broadcast protocols”, ACM Trans. on Computer Systems, 2(3), Aug. 1984, pp. 251–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Weijia Jia, J. Kaiser, E. Nett:RMP: “Fault-Tolerant Group Communication”, IEEE Micro, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, USAS. 59–67, April 1996Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    F. Cristian: “Synchronous Atomic Broadcast for Redundant Broadcast Channels”, The Journal of Real-Time Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 195–212, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    L. Rodrigues and P. Veríssimo: “xAMP: a Multi-primitive Group Communication Service”, IEEE Proc. 11th Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, Houston TX, Oct. 1992.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    C.M. Krishna, K.G. Shin: “Real-Time Systems”, McGraw-Hill, 1997Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    CiA Draft Standards 201..207: “CAN Application Layer (CAL) for Industrial Applications”, may 1993.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    DeviceNet Specification 2.0 Vol. 1, Published by ODVA, 8222 Wiles Road-Suite 287-Coral Springs, FL 33067 USA.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Smart Distributed Systems, Application Layer Protocol Version 2, Honeywell Inc, Micro Switch Specification GS 052 103 Issue 3, USA, 1996Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Siemens AG: “C167 User’s Manual 03.96”, Published by Siemens AG, Bereich Halbleiter, Marketing-Kommunikation, 1996.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M.A. Livani:“SHARE: A Transparent Mechanism for Reliable Broadcast Delivery in CAN”, Informatik Bericht 98-14, University of Ulm, 1998Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    M.A. Livani, J. Kaiser, W. Jia: “Scheduling Hard and Soft Real-Time Communication in the Controller Area Network (CAN) ”, 23rd IFAC/IFIP Workshop on Real Time Programming, Shantou, China, June 1998.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M.A. Livani and J. Kaiser: “Evaluation of a Hybrid Real-time Bus Scheduling Mechanism for CAN”, 7th Int’l Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Real-Time Systems (WPDRTS’99), San Juan, Puerto Rico, Apr. 1999.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Maruti 3, Design Overview 1st Edition, System Design and Analysis Group, Dept. of Comp. Science, Univ. of Maryland, 1995.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    H. Kopetz and G. Grünsteidl: “TTP-A Time-Triggered Protocol for Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems”, Res. Report 12/92, Inst. f. Techn. Informatik, Tech. Univ. of Vienna, 1992.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    F. Cristian et. al.: “Atomic Broadcast: From Simple Message Diffusion to Byzantine Agreement”, IEEE 15th Int’l Symposium on Fault-Tolerant Computing Systems, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    K. M. Zuberi and K. G. Shin: “A Causal Message Ordering Scheme for Distributed Embedded Real-Time Systems”, Proc. Symp. on Reliable and Distributed Systems, Oct 1996.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    M.A. Livani, J. Kaiser:“A Total Ordering Scheme for Real-Time Multicasts in CAN”, The Proc. Third International Workshop on Active and Real-Time Database Systems, Schloß Dagstuhl, Mai 1999Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    P. Ramanathan and K.G. Shin: “Delivery of Time-Critical Messages Using a Multiple Copy Approach”, ACM Tr. Computer Systems, 10(2):144–166, May 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    K. M. Zuberi and K. G. Shin, “Non-Preemptive Scheduling of messages on Controller Area Network for Real-Time Control Applications”, Technical Report, University of Michigan, 1995.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    J. Kaiser, M. Mock: “Implementing the Real-Time Publisher/Subscriber Model on the Controller Area Network (CAN) ”, 2nd Int’l Symposium on Object-Oriented Distributed Real-Time Computing Systems, San Malo, May 1999.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jörg Kaiser
    • 1
  • Mohammad Ali Livani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer StructuresUniversity of UlmUlmGermany

Personalised recommendations