Advertisement

Function and Regulation of Temperature-Inducible Bacterial Proteins on the Cellular Metabolism

  • Wolfgang Schumann
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 67)

Abstract

Temperature is an important environmental factor which, when altered, requires adaptive re- sponses from bacterial cells. While a sudden increase in the growth temperature induces a heat shock response, a decrease results in a cold shock response. Both responses involve a transient increase in a set of genes called heat and cold shock genes, respectively, and the transient enhanced synthesis of their proteins allows the stressed cells to adapt to the new situation. A sudden increase in the growth temperature results in the unfolding of proteins, and hydrophobic amino acid residues normally buried within the interior of the proteins be- come exposed on their surface. Via these hydrophobic residues which often form hydro- phobic surfaces proteins can interact and form aggregates which may become life-threat- ening. Here, molecular chaperones bind to these exposed hydrophobic surfaces to prevent the formation of protein aggregates. Some chaperones, the foldases, allow refolding of these denatured proteins into their native conformation, while ATP-dependent proteases degrade these non-native proteins which fail to fold. Most chaperones and energy-dependent pro- teases are heat shock proteins, and their genes are either regulated by alternate sigma factors or by repressors. The cold shock response evokes two major threats to the cells, namely a drastic reduction in membrane fluidity and a transient complete stop of translation at least in E. coli. Membrane fluidity is restored by increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids and translation resumes after adaptation of the ribosomes to cold. Neither an alternative sigma factor nor a repressor seems to be involved in the regulation of the cold shock genes in E. coli, the only species studied so far in this respect.

Keywords

Heat shock Cold shock Genetic regulation Chaperones Proteases 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Harder W, Veldkamp H (1967) Arch Mikrobiol 59:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Herendeen SL, VanBogelen RA, Neidhard FC (1979) J Bacteriol 139:185Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Condon C, Liveris D, Squires C, Schwartz I, Squires CL (1995) J Bacteriol 177:4152Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bukau B, Horwich AL(1998) Cell 92:351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bohen SP, Kralli A,Y amamoto KR (1995) Science 268:1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rassow J, Von Ahsen O, Bömer U, Pfanner N (1997) Trends Cell Biol 7:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richardson A, Landry SJ, Georgopoulos C (1998) Trends Biochem Sci 23:138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wickner S, Hoskins J, McKenney K (1991) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:7903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wickner S, Gottesman S, Skowyra D, Hoskins J, McKenney K, Maurizi MR (1994) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:12218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wawrzynow A, Wojtkowiak D, Marszalek J, Banecki B, Jonsen M, Graves B, Georgopoulos C, Zylicz M (1995) EMBO J 14:1867Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Konieczny I, Helinski DR (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:14378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levchenko I, Luo L, Baker TA (1995) Genes Dev 9:2399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kruklitis R, Welty DJ, Nakai H (1996) EMBO J 15:935Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Laskowska E, Kuczynska-Wisnik D, Skorko-Glonek J, Taylor A (1996) Mol Microbiol 22:555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jakob U, Muse W, Eser M, Bardwell JCA (1999) Cell 96:341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Allen SP, Polazzi JO, Gierse JK, Easton AM (1992) J Bacteriol 174:6938Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laskowska E, Wawrzynów A, Taylor A (1996) Biochimie 78:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jakob U, Buchner J (1994) Trends Biochem Sci 19:205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bardwell JCA, Craig EA (1987) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:5177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jakob U, Lilie H, Meyer I, Buchner J (1995) J Biol Chem 270:7288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jakob U, Meyer I, Bügl H, André S, Bardwell JCA, Buchner J (1995) J Biol Chem 270: 14412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Versteeg S, Mogk A, Schumann W (1999) Mol Gen Genet 261:582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldberg AL, Moerschell RP, Chung CH, Maurizi MR (1994) Methods Enzymol 244:350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gottesman S (1996) Annu Rev Genet 30:465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gottesman S (1996) Roles for energy-dependent proteases in regulatory cascades. In: Lin ECC, Lynch AS (eds) Regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli. R.G. Landes Co., Austin, TX, p 503Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maurizi MR, Trisler P, Gottesman S (1985) J Bacteriol 164:1124Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kessel M, Maurizi MR, Kim B, Kocsis E, Trus BL, Singh SK, Steven AC (1995) J Mol Biol 250:587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gottesman S, Clark WP, De Crecy-Lagard V, Maurizi MR (1993) J Biol Chem 268:22618Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wojtkowiak D, Georgopoulos C, Zylicz M (1993) J Biol Chem 268:22609Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Melderen L, Thi MHD, Lecchi P, Gottesman S, Couturier M, Maurizi MR (1996) J Biol Chem 271:27730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Missiakas D, Schwager F, Betton J-M, Georgopoulos C, Raina S (1996) EMBO J 15:6899Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kessel M, Wu WF, Gottesman S, Kocsis E, Steven AC, Maurizi MR (1996) FEBS Lett 398:274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rohrwild M, Coux O, Huang HC, Moerschell RP, Yoo SJ, Seol JH, Chung CH, Goldberg AL (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:5808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schumann W (1999) FEMS Microbiol Rev 23:1Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tomoyasu T, Yuki T, Morimura S, Mori H, Yamanaka K, Niki H, Hiraga S, Ogura T (1993) J Bacteriol 175:1344Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tomoyasu T, Gamer J, Bukau B, Kanemori M, Mori H, Rutman AJ, Oppenheim AB, Yura T, Yamanaka K, Niki H, Hiraga S, Ogura T (1995) EMBO J 14:2551Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K (1995) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:4532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Akiyama Y, Kihara A, Ito K (1996) FEBS Lett 399:26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kihara A, Akiyama Y, Ito K (1998) J Mol Biol 279:175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Akiyama Y, Ehrmann M, Kihara A, Ito K (1998) Mol Microbiol 28:803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rawlings N, Barrett A (1994) Methods Enzymol 244:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Spiess C, Beil A, Ehrmann M (1999) Cell 97:339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grossman AD, Erickson JW, Gross CA (1984) Cell 38:383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bukau B (1993) Mol Microbiol 9:671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yura T, Nagai H, Mori H (1993) Annu Rev Microbiol 47:321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Nagai H, Yuzawa H, Yura T (1991) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:10515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morita MT, Tanaka Y, Kodama TS, Kyogoku Y, Yanagi H, Yura T (1999) Genes Dev 13:655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nagai H, Yuzawa H, Kanemori M, Yura, T (1994) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:10280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nakahigashi K, Yanagi H, Yura T (1995) Nucleic Acids Res 23:4383Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    McCarty JS, Rüdiger S, Schönfel HJ, Schneider-Mergener J, Nakahigashi K, Yura T, Bukau B (1996) J Mol Biol 256:829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA (1987) Nature 329:348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tilly K, Spence J, Georgopoulos C (1989) J Bacteriol 171:1585Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Straus DB, Walter W, Gross CA (1990) Genes Dev 4:2202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Herman C, Thévenet D, D’Ari R, Bouloc P (1995) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:3516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Erickson JW, Gross CA (1989) Genes Dev 3:1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang QP, Kaguni JM (1989) J Bacteriol 171:4248Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    De Las Peñas A, Connolly L, Gross CA (1997) Mol Microbiol 24:373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Missiakas D, Mayer MP, Lemaire M, Georgopoulos C, Raina S (1997) Mol Microbiol 24:355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mecsas J, Rouviere PE, Erickson JW, Donohue TJ, Gross CA (1993) Genes Dev 7:2618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Missiakas D, Betton JM, Raina S (1996) Mol Microbiol 21:871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Raina S, Missiakas D, Georgopoulos C (1995) EMBO J14:1043Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Missiakas D, Raina S (1998) Mol Microbiol 28:1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Model P, Jovanovic G, Dworkin J (1997) Mol Microbiol 24:255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brissette JL, Russel M, Weiner L, Model P (1990) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brissette JL, Weiner L, Ripmaster TL, Model P (1991) J Mol Biol 220:35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kleerebezem M, Crielaard W, Tommassen J (1996) EMBO J 15:162Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Weiner L, Brissette JL, Ramani N, Model P (1995) Nucleic Acids Res 23:2030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weiner L, Brissette JL, Model P (1991) Genes Dev 5:1912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hurme R, Berndt KD, Normark SJ, Rhen M (1997) Cell 90:55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhong M, Orosz A, Wu C (1998) Mol Cell 2:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Haldenwang WG, Losick R (1979) Nature 282:256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Alper S, Duncan L, Losick R (1994) Cell 77:195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kang CM, Brody MS, Akbar S, Yang XF, Price CW (1996) J Bacteriol 178:3846Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wise AA, Price CW (1995) J Bacteriol 177:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dufour A, Haldenwang WG (1994) J Bacteriol 176:1813Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Voelker U, Voelker A, Haldenwang WG (1996) J Bacteriol 178:5456Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yang X, Kang CM, Brody MS, Price CW (1996) Genes Dev 10:2265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Voelker U, Voelker A, Maul B, Hecker M, Dufour A, Haldenwang WG (1995) J Bacteriol 177:3771Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Alper S, Dufour A, Garsin DA, Duncan L, Losick R (1996) J Mol Biol 260:165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Zuber U, Schumann W (1994) J Bacteriol 176:1359Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bucca G, Ferina G,P uglia AM, Smith CP (1995) Mol Microbiol 17:663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Servant P, Mazodier P (1995) J Bacteriol 177:2998Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Derré I, Rapoport G, Msadek T (1999) Mol Microbiol 31:117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Narberhaus F (1999) Mol Microbiol 31:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wetzstein M, Völker U, Dedio J, Löbau S, Zuber U, Schiesswohl M, Herget C, Hecker M, Schumann W (1992) J Bacteriol 174:3300Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schmidt A, Schiesswohl M, Völker U, Hecker M, Schumann W (1992) J Bacteriol 174:3993Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Yuan G, Wong S-L (1995) J Bacteriol 177:5427Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Yuan G, Wong S-L (1995) J Bacteriol 177:6462Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schulz A, Schumann W (1996) J Bacteriol 178:1088Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mogk A, Homuth G, Scholz C, Kim L, Schmid FX, Schumann W (1997) EMBO J 16:4579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Grandvalet C, de Crécy-Lagard V, Mazodier P (1999) Mol Microbiol 31:521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Narberhaus F, Käser R, Nocker A, Hennecke H (1998) Mol Microbiol 28:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Münchbach M, Nocker A, Narberhaus F (1999) J Bacteriol 181:83Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Van Bogelen RA, Neidhardt FC (1990) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:5589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Craig EA, Gross CA (1991) Trends Biochem Sci 16:135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McCarty JS, Walker GC (1991) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:9513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jones PG, Inouye M (1994) Mol Microbiol 11:811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Yamanakada K, Fang L, Inouye M (1998) Mol Microbiol 27:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Thieringer HA, Jones PG, Inouye M (1998) BioEssays 20:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Graumann P, Marahiel MA (1996) Arch Microbiol 166:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Graumann P, Wendrich TM, Weber MHW, Schröder K, Marahiel MA (1997) Mol Microbiol 25:741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Graumann PL, Marahiel MA (1998) Trends Biochem Sci 23:286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Murata N (1989) J Bioenerg Biomembr 21:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cossins AR (1994) In: Cossins AR (ed) Temperature adaptation of biological membranes. Portland, London, p 63Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Garwin JL, Cronan JE Jr (1980) J Bacteriol 141:1457Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cronan JE Jr, Rock CO (1996) In: Neidhard FC, Curtiss R III, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M (eds) Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington DC, p 612Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Fulco AJ, Fujii DK (1980) The effect of temperature on the formation of delta-5 unsaturated fatty acids by bacilli. In: Kates M, Kuksis A (eds) Membrane fluidity, biophysical techniques and cellular regulation. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, p 77Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Grau R, De Mendoza D (1993) Mol Microbiol 8:535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Aguilar PS, Cronan JE Jr, De Mendoza D (1998) J Bacteriol 180:2194Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sato N, Murata N (1981) Plant Cell Physiol 22:1043Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wada H, Murata N (1990) Plant Physiol 92:1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wada H, Murata N (1989) Plant Cell Physiol 30:971Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wada H, Gombos Z, Murata N (1990) Nature 347:200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sakamoto T, Bryant DA (1997) Mol Microbiol 23:1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ng H, Ingraham JL, Marr AG (1962) J Bacteriol 84:331Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Jones PG, Van Bogelen RA, Neidhardt FC (1987) J Bacteriol 169:2092Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jones PG, Krah R, Tafuri SR, Wolffe AP (1992) J Bacteriol 174:5798Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lee SJ, Xie A, Jiang W, Etchegary J-P, Jones PG, Inouye M (1994) Mol Microbiol 11:833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jones PG, Mitta M, Kim Y, Jiang WN, Inouye M (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Graumann P, Schröder K, Schmid R, Marahiel MA (1996) J Bacteriol 178:4611Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jones PG, Inouye M (1996) Mol Microbiol 21:1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Goldstein J, Pollitt NS, Inouye M (1990) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Wolffe AP (1994) BioEssays 16:245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Brandi A, Spurio R, Gualerzi CO, Pon CL (1999) EMBO J 18:1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Newkirk K, Feng W, Jiang W, Tejero R, Emerson SD, Inouye M, Montelione GT (1994) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:5114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schindelin H, Jiang W, Inouye M, Heinemann U (1994) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:5119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jiang W, Hou Y, Inouye M (1997) J Biol Chem 272:196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sato N (1995) Nucleic Acids Res 23:2161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Broeze RJ, Solomon CJ, Popham D (1978) J Bacteriol 134:861Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Mitta M, Fang L, Inouye M (1997) Mol Microbiol 26:321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Jiang W, Jones P, Inouye M (1993) J Bacteriol 175:5824Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Goldenberg D, Azar I, Oppenheim AB, Brandi A, Pon CL, Gualerzi CO (1997) Mol Gen Genet 256:282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tanabe H, Goldstein J, Yang M, Inouye M (1992) J Bacteriol 174:3867Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Fang L, Jiang W, Bae W, Inouye M (1997) Mol Microbiol 23:355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Brandi A, Pietroni P, Gualerzi CO, Pon CL (1997) Mol Microbiol 19:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Goldenberg D, Azar I, Oppenheim AB (1996) Mol Microbiol 19:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bae W, Phadtare S, Severinov K, Inouye M (1999) Mol Microbiol 31:1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jiang W, Fang L, Inouye M (1996) J Bacteriol 178:4919Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Bae W, Jones PG, Inouye M (1997) J Bacteriol 179:7081Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    La Teana A, Brandi A, Falconi M, Spurio R, Pon CL, Gualerzi CO (1991) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:10907CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Schumann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of GeneticsUniversity of BayreuthBayreuthGermany

Personalised recommendations