Advertisement

Optical Spectra of Supernovae

  • David Branch
  • Edward A. Baron
  • David J. Jeffery
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 598)

Abstract

Supernova flux and polarization spectra bring vital information on the geometry, physical conditions, and composition structure of the ejected matter. For some supernovae the circumstellar matter is also probed by the observed spectra. Some of this information can be inferred directly from the observed line profiles and fluxes but, because of the Doppler broadening and severe line blending, interpretation often involves the use of synthetic spectra. The emphasis in this chapter is on recent results obtained with the help of synthetic spectra.

Keywords

Optical Spectrum Maximum Brightness Synthetic Spectrum Hydrogen Line Sobolev Approximation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G.C. Anupama, T. Sivarani, G. Pandey: Astron. Astrophys. 367,506 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Baron et al.: Astrophys. J. 441, 170 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. Baron, P.H. Hauschildt, A. Mezzacappa: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 278, 763 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Baron et al.: Astrophys. J. 545, 444 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Baron, D. Branch, P.H. Hauschildt, A.V. Filippenko, R.P. Kirshner: Astrophys. J. 527, 739 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Baron, P.H. Hauschildt, P. Nugent, D. Branch: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 283, 297 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Benetti et al.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 322, 361 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, I.J. Danziger, M. Turatto, F. Patat, M. Della Valle: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 294, 448 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Benetti, M. Turatto, E. Cappellaro, I.J. Danziger, P.A. Mazzali: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 305, 811 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    E.J.C. Bowers et al.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 290, 663 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Branch: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 113, 169 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Branch: ‘Direct Analysis of Spectra of Type Ic Supernovae’. In: Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts, Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium on Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts at Baltimore, MD, USA, May 3–6, 1999 ed. by M. Livio, N. Panagia, K. Sahu (Cambridge University, Cambridge 2001) p. 96Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Branch et al.: Astrophys. J. 566, 1005 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Branch, D.J. Jeffery, M. Blaylock, K. Hatano: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 112, 217 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.P. Cassinelli, D.A. Hummer: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 154, 9 (1971)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Chandrasekhar: Radiative Transfer (Dover Publications, New York 1960)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.A. Chevalier, C. Fransson: Astrophys. J. 420, 268 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N.N. Chugai: Sov. Astron. Lett. 18(3), 168 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N.N. Chugai: Astron. Rep. 41, 672 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N.N. Chugai: Astrophys. J. 531, 411 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N.N. Chugai: Astrophys. J. 326, 1448 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N.N. Chugai, A.A. Andronova, V.P. Utrobin: Astron. Zhurnal 22, 672 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N.N. Chugai, S.I. Blinnikov, A. Fassia, P. Lundqvist, W.P.S. Meikle, E.I. Sorokina: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 330, 473 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N.N. Chugai, I.J. Danziger: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 268, 173 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    N.N. Chugai, V.P. Utrobin: Astron. Astrophys. 354, 557 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Clocchiatti et al: Astrophys. J. 483, 675 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Clocchiatti et al: Astrophys. J. 529, 661 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Clocchiatti et al: Astrophys. J. 553, 886 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.S. Deng, Y.L. Qiu, J.Y. Hu: Astrophys. J. submitted (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.S. Deng, Y.L. Qiu, J.Y. Hu, K. Hatano, D. Branch: Astrophys. J. 540, 452 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Eastman, R.P. Kirshner: Astrophys. J. 347, 771 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Fassia et al.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 325, 907 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Fassia, W.P.S. Meikle: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 302, 314 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Fassia, W.P.S. Meikle, T.R. Geballe, N.A. Walton, D.L. Pollacco, R.G.M. Rutten, C. Tinney: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 299, 150 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. Fesen et al.: Astron. J. 117, 725 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.V. Filippenko: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35, 309 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A.V. Filippenko: ‘Optical Observations of Type II Supernovae’. In: Cosmic Explosions, 10th Annual October Astrophysics Conference at College Park, MD, USA, 11–13 October 1999, ed. by S. Holt, W.W. Zhang (AIP, New York 2000) p. 40Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A.K. Fisher: Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernova Spectra. PhD Thesis, University of Oklahoma, Norman (2000)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    A.K. Fisher, D. Branch, K. Hatano, E. Baron: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 304, 67 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Fransson: Astron. Astrophys. 132, 115 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. Fransson: ‘The Late Emission from Supernovae’. In: Supernovae, NATO Advanced Study Institute on Supernovae at Les Houches, France, 31 July–01 September 1990, ed. by S.A. Bludman, R. Mochkovitch, J. Zinn-Justin (Elsevier, Amsterdam 1994) p. 677Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Fransson et al.: Astrophys. J. 572, 350 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Fransson, R.A. Chevalier: Astrophys. J. 343, 323 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P.M. Garnavich et al.: Astrophys. J. submitted (2003)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    C.L. Gerardy, R.A. Fesen, P. Höflich, J.C. Wheeler: Astron. J. 119, 2968 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    L.M. Germany, D.J. Riess, E.M. Sadler, B.P. Schmidt, C.W. Stubbs: Astrophys. J. 533, 320, (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Hamuy et al.: Astrophys. J. 558, 615 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.P. Harkness et al.: Astrophys. J. 317, 355 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    K. Hatano, D. Branch, A. Fisher, E. Baron, A. V. Filippenko: Astrophys. J. 525, 881 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. Hatano, D. Branch, A. Fisher, J. Millard, E. Baron: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 121, 233 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Hatano, D. Branch, E.J. Lentz, E. Baron, A.V. Filippenko, P.M. Garnavich: Astrophys. J. 543, L49 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Hatano, D. Branch, K. Nomoto, J.S. Deng, K. Maeda, P. Nugent, G. Aldering: Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 198, 3902 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    P.H. Hauschildt, E. Baron: J.: J. Comp. Appl. Math. 109, 41 (1999)zbMATHADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. Hernandez et al.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 319, 223 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    P. Höflich: Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia 7, 434 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    P. Höflich: Astron. Astrophys. 246, 481 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    P. Höflich, A. Khokhlov, L. Wang: ‘Aspherical Supernova Explosions: Hydrodynamics, Radiation Transport, and Observational Consequences’. In: Relativistic Astrophysics, 20th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics at Austin, TX, USA, 10–15 December 2000, ed. by J.C. Wheeler, H. Martel (New York, AIP 2001) p. 459Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. Höflich, J.C. Wheeler, D.C. Hines, S.R. Tramell: Astrophys. J. 459, 307 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    P. Höflich, J.C. Wheeler, F.K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 495, 617 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.C. Houck, C. Fransson: Astrophys. J. 456, 811 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    D.A. Howell, P. Höflich, L. Wang, J.C. Wheeler: Astrophys. J. 556, 302 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    D.J. Jeffery: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 71, 951 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    D.J. Jeffery: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 77, 405 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    D.J. Jeffery: Astrophys. J. 415, 734 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    D.J. Jeffery: in preparation (2003)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    D.J. Jeffery, D. Branch: ‘Analysis of Supernova Spectra’. In: Supernovae, 6th Jerusalem Winter School for Theoretical Physics at Jerusalem, Israel, 28 December 1988–05 January 1989, ed. by J.C. Wheeler, T. Piran, S. Weinberg (World Scientific, Singapore 1990) p. 149Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. Jha et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 125, 73 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    A.H. Karp, G. Lasher, K.L. Chan, E.E. Salpeter: Astrophys. J. 214, 161 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    D. Kasen, D. Branch, E. Baron, D.J. Jeffery: Astrophys. J. 565, 380 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    E.J. Lentz et al.: Astrophys. J. 547, 406 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    E.J. Lentz, E. Baron, D. Branch, P. Hauschildt: Astrophys. J. 547, 402 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    E.J. Lentz, E. Baron, D. Branch, P. Hauschildt: Astrophys. J. 557, 266 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    E.J. Lentz, E. Baron, D. Branch, P. Hauschildt, P.E. Nugent: Astrophys. J. 530, 966 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    D.C. Leonard et al.: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 114, 35 (2002)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    D.C. Leonard, A.V. Filippenko: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 113, 920 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    D.C. Leonard, A.V. Filippenko, D.R. Ardila, M.S. Brotherton: Astrophys. J. 553, 861 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    D.C. Leonard, A.V. Filippenko, A.J. Barth, T. Matheson: Astrophys. J. 536, 239 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    D.C. Leonard, A.V. Filippenko, T. Matheson: ‘Probing the Geometry of Supernovae with Spectropolarimetry’. In: Cosmic Explosions, 10th Annual October Astrophysics Conference at College Park, MD, USA, 11–13 October 1999, ed. by S. Holt, W.W. Zhang (AIP, New York 2000) p. 165Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    H. Li, R. McCray, R.A. Sunyaev: Astrophys. J. 419, 824 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    W.D. Li et al.: Astron. J. 117, 2709 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    W.D. Li et al.: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 113, 1178 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    W.D. Li, A.V. Filippenko, R.R. Treffers, A.G. Riess, J. Hu, Y. Qiu: Astrophys. J. 546, 734 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    W. Liu, D.J. Jeffery, D.R. Schultz: Astrophys. J. 494, 812 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    L.B. Lucy: Astrophys. J. 383, 308 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    L.B. Lucy: Astron. Astrophys. 345, 211 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    L.B. Lucy: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 326, 95 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    T. Matheson, A.V. Filippenko, R. Chornock, D.C. Leonard, W. Li: Astron. J. 119, 2303 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    T. Matheson, A.V. Filippenko, Ho, L.C., Barth, A.J., D.C. Leonard: Astron. J. 120, 1499 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    T. Matheson, A.V. Filippenko, W. Li, D.C. Leonard, J.C. Shields: Astron. J. 121, 1648 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    P.A. Mazzali: Astrophys. J. 499, L49 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    P.A. Mazzali: Astron. Astrophys. 363, 705 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    P.A. Mazzali: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 321, 341 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    P.A. Mazzali, N. Chugai, M. Turatto, L.B. Lucy, I.J. Danziger, E. Cappellaro, M. Della Valle, S. Benetti: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 284, 151 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    P.A. Mazzali, K. Iwamoto, K. Nomoto: Astrophys. J. 545, 407 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    P.A. Mazzali, L.B. Lucy: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 295, 428 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    P.A. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, K. Maeda: Astrophys. J. 559,, 1047 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    M.L. McCall: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 829 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    R. McCray: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 175 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    W.P.S. Meikle et al.: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 281, 263 (1996))ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    D. Mihalas: Stellar Atmospheres (W. H. Freeman, San Francisco 1978)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. Millard et al.: Astrophys. J. 527, 746 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    P.A. Milne, L.-S. The, M.D. Leising: Astrophys. J. 559, 1019 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    R. Mitchell, E. Baron, D. Branch, P. Lundqvist, S. Blinnikov, P.H. Hauschildt, C.S.J. Pun: Astrophys. J. 556, 979 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    M. Modjaz, W. Li, A.V. Filippenko, J.Y. King, D.C. Leonard, T. Matheson, R.R. Treffers: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 113, 308 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    K. Nomoto, F.-K. Thielemann, Y. Yokoi: Astrophys. J. 286, 644 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    P. Nugent, M.M. Phillips, E. Baron, D. Branch, P. Hauschildt: Astrophys. J. 455, L147 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    F. Patat et al.: Astrophys. J. 555, 900 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    P. Pinto, R.G. Eastman:: Astrophys. J. 530, 757 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Y. Qiu, W. Li, Q. Qiao, J. Hu: Astron. J. 117, 736 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    P. Ruiz-Lapuente: Astrophys. J. 439, 60 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    P. Ruiz-Lapuente, L.B. Lucy: Astrophys. J. 400, 127 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    M.E. Salvo, E. Cappellaro, P.A. Mazzali, S. Benetti, I. J. Danziger, M. Turatto: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 321, 254 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    I. Salamanca, R. Cid-Fernandes, G. Tenorio-Tagle, E. Telles, R.J. Terlevich, C. Munoz-Tunon: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 300, 17 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    W. Schmutz, D.C. Abbott, R.S. Russell, W.-R. Hamann, U. Wessolowski: Astrophys. J. 355, 255 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    K. Serkowski: In Interstellar Dust and Related Topics, IAU Symposium 52 at Albany, NY, 29 May–02 June 1972 ed. by J.M. Greenberg, H.C. van de Hulst (Reidel, Dordrecht 1973) p. 145Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    P.R. Shapiro, P.G. Sutherland: Astrophys. J. 263, 902 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    J. Sollerman, R.J. Cumming, P. Lundqvist: Astron. Astrophys. 493, 933 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    J. Sollerman, B. Leibundgut, J. Spyromilio: Astron. Astrophys. 337, 207 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    J. Spyromilio, B. Leibundgut, R. Gilmozzi: Astron. Astrophys. 376, 188 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    D.A. Swartz, A.V. Filippenko, K. Nomoto, J.C. Wheeler: Astrophys. J. 411, 313 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    D.A. Swartz, P.G. Sutherland, R.P. Harkness J.C. Wheeler: Astrophys. J. 446, 766 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    F.-K. Thielemann, K. Nomoto, K. Yokoi: Astron. Astrophys. 158, 17 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    R.C. Thomas, D. Kasen, D. Branch, E. Baron: Astrophys. J. 567, 1037 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    M. Turatto et al.: Astrophys. J. 498, L129 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    M. Turatto et al.: Astrophys. J. 534, L57 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    M. Turatto, A. Piemonta, S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, P.A. Mazzali, I.J. Danziger, F. Patat: Astron. J. 116, 2431 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    V.P. Utrobin: Astron. Astrophys. 306, 231 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    S.D. Van Dyk, R.A. Sramek, K.W. Weiler, N. Panagia: Astrophys. J. Lett. 419, L69 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    J. Vinkó, L.L. Kiss, B. Csák, G. Fürész, R. Sxabó, J.R. Thomson, S.W. Mochnacki: Astron. J. 121, 3127 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    L. Wang, J.C. Wheeler: Astrophys. J. 462, L27 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    L. Wang, J.C. Wheeler, P. Höflich: Astrophys. J. 476, L27 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    L. Wang, D.A. Howell, P. Höflich, J.C. Wheeler: Astrophys. J. 550, 1030 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    L. Wang et al.: Astrophys. J. 579, 671 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    K.W. Weiler, N. Panagia, R.A. Sramek: Astrophys. J. 364, 611 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    K.W. Weiler, N. Panagia, M.J. Montes, R.A. Sramek: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 387 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    J.C. Wheeler, S. Benetti: ‘Supernovae’. In: Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities, 4th edition ed. by A.N. Cox (Springer, New York 2000) p. 451Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    J.C. Wheeler, P. Höflich, R.P. Harkness, J. Spyromilio: Astrophys. J. 496, 908 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    J.C. Wheeler, D.A. Swartz, R.P. Harkness: Phys. Rep. 227, 113 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    C.L. Williams, N. Panagia, C.K. Lacey, K.W. Weiler, R.A. Sramek, S.D. Van Dyk: Astrophys. J. (581), 396 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    S.E. Woosley, R.G. Eastman: ‘Type Ib and Ic Supernovae: Models and Spectra’. In: Thermonuclear Supernovae, NATO Advanced Study Institute on Thermonuclear Supernovae, at Aiguablava, Spain, 20–30 June 1995, ed. by P. Ruiz-Lapuente, R. Canal, J. Isern (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1997) p. 821Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Branch
    • 1
  • Edward A. Baron
    • 1
  • David J. Jeffery
    • 2
  1. 1.University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.New Mexico Institute of Mining and TechnologySocorroUSA

Personalised recommendations