Advertisement

Radio Observations of γ-Ray Burst Afterglows

  • Kurt W. Weiler
  • Nino Panagia
  • Marcos J. Montes
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 598)

Abstract

Since 1997 the afterglow of γ-ray bursting sources (GRBs) has occasionally been detected in the radio, as well in other wavelengths bands. In particular, the interesting and unusual γ-ray burst GRB980425, thought to be related to the radio supernova SN1998bw, is a possible link between the two classes of objects. Analyzing the extensive radio emission data available for SN1998bw, one can describe its time evolution within the well established framework available for the analysis of radio emission from supernovae. This then allows relatively detailed description of a number of physical properties of the object. The radio emission can best be explained as the interaction of a mildly relativistic (Γ ∼ 1.6) shock with a dense pre-explosion stellar wind-established circumstellar medium that is highly structured both azimuthally, in clumps or filaments, and radially, with observed density enhancements. Because of its unusual characteristics for a type Ib/c supernova, the relation of SN1998bw to GRB980425 is strengthened and suggests that at least some classes of GRBs originate in supernova massive star explosions. Thus, employing the formalism for describing the radio emission from supernovae and following the link through SN1998bw/GRB980425, it is possible to model the gross properties of the radio and optical/IR emission from the half-dozen GRBs with extensive radio observations. From this we conclude that at least some members of the slow-soft class of GRBs can be attributed to the explosion of a massive star in a dense, highly structured CSM that was presumably established by the pre-explosion stellar system.

Keywords

Radio Emission Very Long Baseline Interferometry Radio Data Host Galaxy Color Excess 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. Berger et al.: Astrophys. J. 545, 56 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Bertoldi: GCN 580 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.G. Bhargavi, R. Cowsik: Astrophys. J. Lett. 545, L77 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.S. Bloom, S.G. Djorgovski, S.R. Kulkarni, D.A. Frail: Astrophys. J. Lett. 507, L25 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H.E. Bond: IAUC 6654 (1997)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Bremer, T.P. Kirchbaum, T.J. Galama, A.J. Castro-Tirado, F. Frontera, J. van Paradijs, I.F. Mirabel, E. Costa: Astron. Astrophys. 332, L13 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.S. Briggs, G. Richardson, R.M. Kippen, P.M. Woods: IAUC 6856 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.J. Castro-Tirado et al.: Science 279, 1011 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.J. Castro-Tirado et al.: GCN 452 (1999)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.M. Castro, A. Diercks, S.G. Djorgovski, S.R. Kulkarni, T.J. Galama, J.S. Bloom, F.A. Harrison, D.A. Frail: GCN 605 (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.J. Castro-Tirado et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 370, 398 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Chary et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 498, L9 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R.A. Chevalier: Astrophys. J. 499, 810 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.A. Chevalier, Z.-Y. Li: Astrophys. J. 536, 195 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S.A. Colgate: Astrophys. J. 232, 404 (1979)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Costa et al.: IAUC 6649 (1997)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Z.G. Dai, Y.F. Huang, T. Lu: Astrophys. J. 520, 634 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.G. Djorgovski et al.: Nature 387, 876 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.N. Dodonov, V.L. Afanasiev, V.V. Sokolov, A.V. Moiseev, A.J. Castro-Tirado: GCN 465 (1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Filippenko: IAUC 6969 (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G.J. Fishman, C.A. Meegan: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 33, 415 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.A. Frail, S.R. Kulkarni: IAUC 6662 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.A. Frail, G.B. Taylor, S.R. Kulkarni: GCN 89 (1998)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.A. Frail, S.R. Kulkarni: GCN 451 (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.A. Frail, G.B. Taylor: GCN 574 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.A. Frail et al.: Astrophys. J. 534, 559 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.A. Frail et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 538, L129 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    F. Frontera, E. Costa, L. Piro, P. Soffitta, J. in’t Zand, L. Di Ciolo, A. Tesseri: IAUC 6853 (1998)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.P.U. Fynbo, B.L. Jensen, J. Hjorth, H. Pedersen, J. Gorosabel: GCN 570 (2000)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B.M. Gaensler, R.N. Manchester, L. Staveley-Smith, A.K. Tzioumis, J.E. Reynolds, M.J. Kesteven: Astrophys. J. 479, 845 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T.J. Galama et al.: IAUC 6895 (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T.J. Galama et al.: Nature 395, 670 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T.J. Galama et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 500, L101 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    T.J. Galama et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 497, L13 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T.J. Galama et al.: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 465 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T.J. Galama et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 541, L45 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.R. Garcia et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 500, L105 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P.M. Garnavich, S. Jha, M.A. Pahre, K.Z. Stanek, R.P. Kirshner, M.R. Garcia, A.H. Szentgyorgyi, J.L. Tonry: Astrophys. J. 543, 61 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Goodman: Astrophys. J. Lett. 308, L47 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Goodman: New Astron. 2, 449 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Gorosabel, A.J. Castro-Tirado, A. Pedrosa, M.R. Zapatero-Osorio, A.J.L. Fernades, M. Feroci, E. Costa, F. Frontera: Astron. Astrophys. 347, L31 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J.P. Halpern, J. Kemp, T. Piran, M.A. Bershady: Astrophys. J. Lett. 517, L105 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J.P. Halpern et al.: Astrophys. J. 543, 697 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Hamuy, M.M. Phillips, L.A. Wells, J. Maza: Pub. Astron. Soc. Pacific 105, 787 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R.M. Hjellming, M.P. Rupen: Nature 375, 464 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Y.F. Huang, Z.G. Dai, D.M. Wei, T. Lu: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 298, 459 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    K. Hurley, T. Cline: GCN 450 (1999)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. Iwamoto et al.: Nature 395, 672 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    P. Jakobsen et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 369, L63 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A.O. Jaunsen, J. Hjorth, M.I. Andersen, K. Kjernsmo, H. Pedersen, E. Palazzi: GCN 78 (1998)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    A.O. Jaunsen et al.: Astrophys. J. 546, 127 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    B.L. Jensen et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 370, 909 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    L.E. Kay, J.P. Halpern, K.M. Leighly: IAUC 6969 (1998)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    K.I. Kellermann, I.I.K. Pauliny-Toth: Astrophys. J. Lett. 155, L71 (1969)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    K.I. Kellermann: Comm. Astrophys. 11, 69 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M.R. Kippen, R.D. Preece, T. Giblin: GCN 463 (1999)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. Klose, H. Meusinger, H. Lehmann: IAUC 6864 (1998)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    S.R. Kulkarni, J.S. Bloom, D.A. Frail, R. Ekers, M. Wieringa, R. Wark, J.L. Higdon: IAUC 6903 (1998)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    B. Leibundgut: Astron. Astrophys. 229, 1 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Levinson, R. Blandford: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 120, 129 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Z.-Y. Li, R.A. Chevalier: Astrophys. J. 526, 716 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    C. Lidman et al.: IAUC 6895 (1998)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    R.N. Manchester, B.M. Gaensler, V.C. Wheaton, L. Staveley-Smith, A.K. Tzioumis, M.J. Kesteven, J.E. Reynolds, N.S. Bizunok: Pub. Astron. Soc. Australia 19, 207 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    N. Masetti et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 359, L23 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M.R. Metzger, S.G. Djorgovski, C.C. Steidel, S.R. Kulkarni, K.L. Adelberger, D.A. Frail: IAUC 6655 (1997)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    I.F. Mirabel, L.F. Rodriguez: Nature 371, 46 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M.J. Montes, S.D. Van Dyk, K.W. Weiler, R.A. Sramek, N. Panagia: Astrophys. J. 506, 874 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    M.J. Montes, K.W. Weiler, S.D. Van Dyk, R.A. Sramek, N. Panagia, R. Park: Astrophys. J. 532, 1124 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    J.M. Muller, J. Heise, C. Butler, F. Frontera, L. Di Ciolo, G. Gandolfi, A. Coletta, P. Soffitta: IAUC 6910 (1998)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    L. Nicastro, L.A. Antonelli, G. Celidonio, M.R. Daniele, C. De Libero, G. Spoliti, L. Piro, E. Pian: IAUC 6912 (1998)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    B. Paczynski: Astrophys. J. Lett. 308, L43 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    F. Patat, A. Piemonte: IAUC 6918 (1998)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    F. Patat, E. Cappellaro, L. Rizzi, M. Turatto, S. Benetti: IAUC 7215 (1999)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    E. Pian et al.: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 463 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    E. Pian et al.: Astrophys. J. 536, 778 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    L. Piro et al.: IAUC 6656 (1997)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    M.L. Prevot, J. Lequeux, L. Prevot, E. Maurice, B. Rocca-Volmerange: Astron. Astrophys. 132, 389 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    A.C.S. Readhead: Astrophys. J. 426, 51 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    D.E. Reichart et al.: Astrophys. J. 517, 692 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    B.J. Rickett: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 150, 67 (1970)ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J.E. Rhoads, A.S. Fruchter: Astrophys. J. 546, 117 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    M. Ruderman: NY Acad. Sci. Ann. 262, 164 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    E.M. Sadler, R.A. Stathakis, B.J. Boyle, R.D. Ekers: IAUC 6901 (1998)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. Sagar, V. Mohan, S.B. Pandey, A.K. Pandey, C.S. Stalin, A.J. Castro-Tirado: Bull. Astron. Soc. India 28, 499 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    K.C. Sahu et al.: Astrophys. J. Lett. 489, L127 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    B.D. Savage, J.S. Mathis: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 73 (1979)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    B. Schaefer et al.: IAUC 6658 (1997)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    P.A.G. Scheuer: IAU Symp. 110: VLBI & Compact Radio Sources 110, 197 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    D.J. Schlegel, D.P. Finkbeiner, M. Davis: Astrophys. J. 500, 525 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    D.S. Shepherd, D.A. Frail, S.R. Kulkarni, M.R. Metzger: Astrophys. J. 497, 859 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Smette, A. Fruchter, T. Gull, K. Sahu, H. Ferguson, L. Petro, D. Lindler: GCN 603 (2000)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    T.V. Smirnova, V.I. Shishov: Astron. Rep. 44, 421 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    I.A. Smith, R.P.J. Tilanus: GCN 50 (1998)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    I.A. Smith et al.: Astron. Astrophys. 347, 92 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    D.A. Smith, K. Hurley, T. Cline: GCN 568 (2000)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    P. Soffitta et al.: IAUC 6884 (1998)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    V.V. Sokolov, A.I. Kopylov, S.V. Zharikov, M. Feroci, L. Nicastro, E. Palazzi: Astron. Astrophys. 334, 117 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    T. Takeshima, C. Markwardt, F. Marshall, T. Giblin, R.M. Kippen: GCN 478 (1999)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    G.B. Taylor, D.A. Frail, S.R. Kulkarni: GCN 40 (1998)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    G.B. Taylor, D.A. Frail, S.R. Kulkarni, D.S. Shepherd, M. Feroci, F. Frontera: Astrophys. J. Lett. 502, L115 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    G.B. Taylor, E. Berger: GCN 483 (1999)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    S.J. Tingay et al.: Nature 374, 141 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    C. Tinney, R. Stathakis, R. Cannon, T. Galama: IAUC 6896 (1998)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    R. Uglesich, N. Mirabal, J. Halpern, S. Kassin, S. Novati: GCN 472 (1999)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    F.J. Vrba et al.: Astrophys. J. 528, 254 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    P.M. Vreeswijk et al.: GCN 496 (1999)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    E. Waxman: Astrophys. J. Lett. 489, L33 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    E. Waxman, S.R. Kulkarni, D.A. Frail: Astrophys. J. 497, 288 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    E. Waxman, A. Loeb: Astrophys. J. 515, 721 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    K. Weiler, S. Van Dyk, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, J. Discenna: Astrophys. J. 380, 161 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    K. Weiler, S. Van Dyk, J. Pringle, N. Panagia: Astrophys. J. 399, 672 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    K. Weiler, S. Van Dyk, N. Panagia, R. Sramek: Astrophys. J. 398, 248 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    K.W. Weiler, S.D. Van Dyk, M.J. Montes, N. Panagia, R.A. Sramek: Astrophys. J. 500, 51 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    K.W. Weiler, N. Panagia, M.J. Montes: Astrophys. J. 562, 670 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    K.W. Weiler, N. Panagia, M.J. Montes, R.A. Sramek: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 387 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    S.E. Woosley, R.G. Eastman, B.P. Schmidt: Astrophys. J. 516, 788 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Q.F. Yin: Astrophys. J. 420, 152 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    C.H. Young, D.A. Frail, S.R. Kulkarni: Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 195, 71.05 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    J. in’t Zand et al.: IAUC 6854 (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt W. Weiler
    • 1
  • Nino Panagia
    • 2
    • 4
  • Marcos J. Montes
    • 3
  1. 1.Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7213Washington, DCUSA
  2. 2.Space Telescope Science InstituteBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7212Washington, DCUSA
  4. 4.Astrophysics DivisionSpace Science Department of the European Space AgencyUSA

Personalised recommendations