The semiconductor industry has grown rapidly in recent decades. The main reason for such phenomenal market growth are the continued technological breakthroughs in integrated circuits (ICs). The metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is by far the most common type of transistor in IC technology . In the 1960s, Gordon Moore observed that the feature size in MOSFETs was decreasing by a factor 2 roughly every 18 month . This empirical trend has continued until today, where structure sizes below 0.35 μm are used . Device miniaturization results in reduced unit cost and in improved performance. This is illustrated with the performance of a typical personal computer over the years. Another benefit of miniaturization is the reduction of power consumption.
However, researchers have projected that below 100 nm in size, the laws of physics will prevent further reduction in the minimum size of today’s MOSFETs, and new device concepts will have to be found which take advantage of the quantum mechanical effects that dominate on such a small scale ,,. A number of nanometer-scale devices have already been realized: Resonant-tunneling devices , single-electron transistors , and quantum dot arrays . These devices have minimal structure sizes of typically 50 nm ,,,. All these designs have in common that the active region of the device is in the surface region of the wafer (top-most μm).
KeywordsScanning Tunneling Microscope Quantum Well Lateral Resolution Highly Orient Pyrolytic Graphite Scan Tunneling Spectroscopy
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