Advertisement

Approximate Information Flows: Socially-Based Modeling of Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing

  • Xiaodong Jiang
  • Jason I. Hong
  • James A. Landay
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2498)

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a framework for supporting socially-compatible privacy objectives in ubiquitous computing settings. Drawing on social science research, we have developed a key objective called the Principle of Minimum Asymmetry, which seeks to minimize the imbalance between the people about whom data is being collected, and the systems and people that collect and use that data. We have also developed Approximate Information Flow (AIF), a model describing the interaction between the various actors and personal data. AIF effectively supports varying degrees of asymmetry for ubicomp systems, suggests new privacy protection mechanisms, and provides a foundation for inspecting privacy-friendliness of ubicomp systems.

Keywords

Information Asymmetry Personal Data Asymmetric Information Ubiquitous Computing Information Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Agre, P., Changing Places: Contexts of Awareness in Computing. Human-Computer Interaction, 2001. 16(2–4): p. 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akerlof, G., The Market for “Lemons”:Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1970.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellotti, V. and A. Sellen. Design for Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Environments. In The Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW’93). 1993. Milan, Italy: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berg, I., Education and Jobs: The Great Training Robbery. 1970, New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biskup, J. and U. Flegel. Threshold-Based Identity Recovery for Privacy Enhanced Applications. In 7th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS 2000). 2000. Athens, Greece: ACM.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brin, D., The Transparent Society. 1998, Reading, MA: Perseus Books.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    BusinessWeek, Business Week/Harris Poll: A growing threat. 2000. http://www.businessweek.com/2000/0012/b3673010.htm
  8. 8.
    Covington, M.J., Long, W., Srinivasan, S., Dey, A.K., Ahamad, M., Abowd, G.D. Securing Context-Aw are Applications Using Environment Roles. In 6th ACM Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies (SACMAT 2001). 2001.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cranor, L., et al., The Platform for Privacy Preferences 1.0 (p3p1.0) Specification. 2000. http://www.w3.org/TR/P3P/
  10. 10.
    Ellis, H.S. and W. Fellner, External Economies and Diseconomies. American Economic Review, 1943. 33: p. 493–511.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Ferraiolo, D., J.A. Cugini, and D.R. Kuhn. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): Features and Motivation. In Eleventh Annual Computer Security Applications Conference. 1995.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grudin, J., Desituating Action: Digital Representation of Context. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Journal, 2001. 16(2–4): p. 269–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Horne, C., Sociological Perspectives on the Emergence of Norms, in Social Norms, K. Opp, Editor. 2001, Russell Sage: New York.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang, X. and J. Landay, Modeling Privacy Control in Context-aware Systems Using Decentralized Information Spaces. to appear in IEEE Pervasive Computing, 2002. 1(3).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Langheinrich, M. Privacy by Design-Principles of Privacy-Aware Ubiquitous Systems. In Proceedings of Ubicomp 2001. 2001. Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laudon, K.C., Extensions to the Theory of Markets and Privacy: Mechanics of Pricing Information, in Privacy and Self-Regulation in the Information Age. 1997, US Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lessig, L. The Architecture of Privacy. In Taiwan NET’98. 1998. Taipei, Taiwan.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lessig, L., Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. 1999, New York NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nguyen, D.H. and E.D. Mynatt. Privacy Mirrors: Making Ubicomp Visible. In Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI 2001 (Workshop on Building the User Experience in Ubiquitous Computing). 2001. Seattle, WA: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Noam, E.M., Privacy and Self-Regulation: Markets for Electronic Privacy, in Privacy and Self-Regulation in the Information Age. 1997, US Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pew Internet & American Life, Trust and Privacy Online: Why Americans Want to Rewrite the Rules, 2000. http://www.pewinternet.org/reports/pdfs/PIPPrivacy_Questionnaire.pdf
  24. 24.
    Priyantha, N.B., A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan. The Cricket Location-Support System. In MobiCom 2000: The Sixth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking. 2000. Boston, Massachusetts: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rhodes, B.J., N. Minar, and J. Weaver. Wearable Computing Meets Ubiquitous Computing: Reaping the best of both worlds. In The Third International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC’ 99). 1999. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Samuelson, P., Privacy As Intellectual Property? 52 Stanford Law Review 1125, 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sandhu, R. Engineering Authority and Trust in Cyberspace: the OM-AM and RBAC way. In 5th ACM Workshop on RBAC. 2000. Berlin.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
    Varian, H.R., Economic Aspects of Personal Privacy, in Privacy and Self-Regulation in the Information Age. 1997, US Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weiser, M., Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing, in Communications of the ACM. 1993. p. 75–84.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Westin, A.F., Privacy and Freedom. 1967, New York NY: Atheneum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaodong Jiang
    • 1
  • Jason I. Hong
    • 1
  • James A. Landay
    • 1
  1. 1.Group for User Interface Research Computer Science DivisionUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations