Advertisement

Galaxies Behind the Milky Way and the Great Attractor

  • Renée C. Kraan-Korteweg
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 556)

Abstract

Dust and stars in the plane of the Milky Way create a “Zone of Avoidance” in the extragalactic sky. Galaxies are distributed in gigantic labyrinth formations, filaments and great walls with occasional dense clusters. They can be traced all over the sky, except where the dust within our own galaxy becomes too thick - leaving about 25% of the extragalactic sky unaccounted for. Our Galaxy is a natural barrier which constrains the studies of large-scale structures in the Universe, the peculiar motion of our Local Group of galaxies and other streaming motions (cosmic flows) which are important for understanding formation processes in the Early Universe and for cosmological models.

Only in recent years have astronomers developed the techniques to peer through the disk and uncover the galaxy distribution in the Zone of Avoidance. I present the various observational multi-wavelength procedures (optical, far infrared, near infrared, radio and X-ray) that are currently being pursued to map the galaxy distribution behind our MilkyWay, including a discussion of the (different) limitations and selection effects of these (partly) complementary approaches. The newly unveiled large-scale structures are discussed and compared to predictions from theoretical reconstructions of the mass density field. Particular emphasis is given to discoveries in the Great Attractor region - a from streaming motions predicted huge overdensity centered behind the Galactic Plane. The recently unveiled massive rich cluster A3627 seems to constitute the previously unidentified core of the Great Attractor.

Keywords

Spiral Galaxy Galaxy Cluster Peculiar Velocity Rich Cluster Great Attractor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Proctor, R.: The Universe of Stars, (Longmans, Green and Co. London 1878) pp. 41Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Herschel, J.: Philosophical Transactions (1864)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Charlier C.V.L.: Arkiv för Mat. Astron. Fys. 16, 1 (1922)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dreyer J.L.E.: A New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, being the catalogue of the late Sir John F.W. Herschel, revised, corrected and enlarged Mem.R.A.S. XLIX, Part 1 (1888)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dreyer J.L.E.: Index Catalogue of Nebulae found in the Years 1888 to 1894, with Notes and Corrections Mem.R.A.S. LI (1895)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shapley, H.: in Galaxies, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961) pp. 159Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shane C.D., Wirtanen C.A.: Publ. Lick Obs. XXII, Pt. I (1967)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nilson P.: Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies, (Uppsala, University of Uppsala 1973)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lauberts A.: The ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) (Atlas, ESO, Garching 1982)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vorontsov-Velyaminov B., Archipova V.: Morphological Catalog of Galaxies, Parts 2 to 5, (Moscow, Moscow University 1963-74)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fouqué P., Paturel G.: A&A150, 192 (1985)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hudson M.J., Lynden-Bell D.: MNRAS 252, 219 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schlegel D.J., Finkbeiner D.P., Davis M.: ApJ 500, 525 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cardelli J.A., Clayton G.C., Mathis J.S: ApJ 345, 245 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fairall A.P.: Large-Scale Structures in the Universe (Wiley Praxis Series in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Praxis Publishing, Chichester 1998)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kogut A., Lineweaver C., Smoot G.F., Bennett C. L., Banday A., Boggess N.W., Cheng E.S., de Amici, G., Fixsen D.J., Hinshaw G., Jackson P. D., Janssen M., Keegstra P., Loewenstein K., Lubin P., Mather J.C., Tenorio L., Weiss R., Wilkinson D.T., Wright E.: ApJ 419, 1 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sandage A., Tammann G.A.: in Large Scale Structures of the Universe, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, ed. by G. Setti & L. van Hove, (Garching: ESO 1984) pp. 127Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shaya E.J.: ApJ 280, 470 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kolatt T., Dekel A., Lahav O.: MNRAS 275, 797 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peebles, P.J.E.: ApJ 429, 43 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dressler A., Faber S.M., Burstein D., Davies, R.L., Lynden-Bell D., Terlevich R.J., Wegner G.: ApJ 313, 37 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lynden-Bell D., Faber S.M., Burstein D., Davies R.L., Dressler A., Terlevich R.J., Wegner G.: ApJ 326, 19 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Böhm-Vitense E.: 1956, PASP 68, 430Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shane C.D., Wirtanen C.A.: AJ 59, 285 (1954)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fitzgerald M.P.: A&A 31, 467 (1974)ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dodd R.J., Brand P.W.J.L.: A&AS 25, 519 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Huchtmeier W.K.: A&A 266, 150 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lahav O., Yamada T., Scharf C.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: MNRAS 262, 711 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weinberger R., Elsässer H., Beetz M., Birkle K.: A&A 48, 327 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huchra J., Hoessel J., Elias J.: AJ 82, 674 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weinberger R., A&AS 40, 123 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Focardi P., Marano B., Vettolani G.: A&A 136, 178 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hauschildt M.: A&A 184, 43 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chamaraux P., Cayatte V., Balkowski C., Fontanelli P.: A&A 229, 340 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Drinkwater M.J., Barnes D.G., Ellison S.L.: PASA 12, 248 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lewis G., Irwin M.: Spectrum, Newsletter of the Royal Observatories 12, 22 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pantoja C.A., Altschuler D.R., Giovanardi C., Giovanelli R.: AJ 113, 905 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Seeberger R., Saurer W., Weinberger R., Lercher G.: in Unveiling Large-Scale Structures Behind the Milky Way, ed. by C. Balkowski, R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67, 81 (1994)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Seeberger R., Saurer W., Weinberger R.: A&AS 117, 1 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Seeberger R., Saurer W.: A&AS 127, 101 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lercher G., Kerber F., Weinberger R.: A&AS 117, 369 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saurer W., Seeberger R., Weinberger R.: A&AS 126, 247 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marchiotto W., Wildauer H., Weinberger R.: (1999) in progressGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Weinberger R., Gajdosik M., Zanin C.: A&AS 137, 293 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Saito M., Ohtani A., Asomuna A., Kashikawa N., Maki T., Nishida S., Watanabe T.: PASJ 42, 603 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saito M., Ohtani A., Baba A., Hotta N., Kameno S., Kurosu S., Nakada K., Takata T.: PASJ 43, 449 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Roman A.T., Takeuchi T.T., Nakanishi K., Saito M.: PASJ 50, 47 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Roman A.T., Nakanishi K., Tomita A., Saito M.: PASJ 48, 679 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Salem C., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: in prep.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: A&ASS 141, 123 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Woudt P.A.: Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Cape (Town 1998)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Woudt P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: A&AS (2000), in prep.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Woudt P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: A&AS (2000), in prep.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fairall A.P., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: in Mapping the Hidden Universe, ed. by R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, P.A. Henning & H. Andernach, ASP Conf. Ser. (2000) in pressGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wakamatsu K., Hasegawa T., Karoji H., Sekiguchi K., Menzies J.W., Malkan M.: in Unveiling Large-Scale Structures Behind the Milky Way, ed. by C. Balkowski, R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67, 131 (1994)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hasegawa T., Wakamatsu K., Malkan M., Sekiguchi K., Menzies J.W., Parker Q.A., Jugaku J., Karoji H., Okamura S.: MNRAS (2000), in pressGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hau G.K.T., Ferguson H.C., Lahav O., Lynden-Bell D.: MNRAS 277, 125 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Abell G.O., Corwin H.G., Olowin R.P.: ApJS 70, 1 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cameron L.M.: A&A 233, 16 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chamaraux P., Masnou J.-L., Kazés I., Saito M., Takata T., Yamada T.: MNRAS 307, 263 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Woudt P.A.: PASA 16, 53 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Cayatte V., Fairall A.P., Balkowksi C., Fairall A.P., Henning P.A.: xin Unveiling Large-Scale Structures behind the Milky Way, ed. by C. Balkowski and R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67 (1999) pp. 99Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Felenbok P., Guérin J., Fernandez A., Cayatte V., Balkowski C., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: Experimental Astronomy 7, 65 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Fairall A.P., Balkowski C.: A&A 297, 617 (1995)ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fairall A.P., Woudt P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: A&AS 127, 463 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Woudt P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Fairall A.P.: A&A 352, 39 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Woudt P.A., Henning P.A.: PASA 14, 15 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sarazin C.L.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 1 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    King I.: AJ 67, 471 (1962)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hughes J.P.: AJ 337, 21 (1990)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    White S.D.M., Briel U.G., Henry J.P.: MNRAS 261, L8 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wolf M.: Heidelberg Publ. 1, 125 (1906)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Böhringer H., Neumann D.M., Schindler S., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: ApJ 467, 168 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lynden-Bell D.: in Observational Tests of Cosmological Inflation, ed. by Shanks, T. et al. (1991) pp. 337Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    West R.M., Tarenghi M.: A&A 223, 61 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Joint IRAS Science Working Group: IRAS Point Source Catalog Version 2 (Washington: US Govt. Printing Office 1988) (IRAS PSC)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yamada T., Takata T., Djamaluddin T., Tomita A., Kentaro T., Saito M.: ApJS 89, 57 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lu N.Y., Dow M.W., Houck J.R., Salpeter E.E., Lewis B.M.: ApJ 357, 388 (1990)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Takata T., Yamada T., Saito M.: ApJ 457, 693 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Strauss M.A., Huchra J.P., Davis M., Yahil A., Fisher K.B., Tonry J.: ApJS 82, 29 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fisher K.B., Huchra J., Davis M., Strauss M.A., Yahil A., Schlegel D.: ApJS 100, 69 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Saunders W., Sutherland W.J., Maddox S.J., Keeble O., Oliver S.J., Rowan-Robinson M., Efstathiou G.P., Tadros H., White S.D.M., Frenk C.S., Carramiñana A., Hawkins M.R.S.: MNRAS (2000) in press (astro-ph/0001117)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Saunders W., D'Mellow K.J., Tully R.B., Mobasher B., Maddox S.J., Sutherland W.J., Carrasco B.E., Hau G., Clements D.L., Staveley-Smith L.: in Towards an Understanding of Cosmic Flows of Large-Scale Structure, ed. by Courteau S., Strauss M., Willick J., ASP Conf. Ser. (2000) in press (astro-ph/9909174)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Woudt P.A., Cayatte V., Fairall A.P., Balkowski C., Henning P.A.: Nature 379 519 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Woudt P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Fairall A.P.: in Towards an Understanding of Cosmic Flows of Large-Scale Structure, ed. by Courteau S., Strauss M., Willick J., ASP Conf. Ser. (2000) in press (astro-ph/9909094)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Epchtein N.: in The Impact of Large Scale Near-Infrared Surveys. ed. by. F. Garzón et al. (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1997) pp. 15Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Epchtein N.: in The Impact of Near-Infrared Sky Surveys on Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy ed. by N. Epchtein (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1998) pp. 3Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Skrutskie M.F., Schneider S.E., Stiening R., Strom S.E., Weinberg M.D., Beichmann C., Chester T., Cutri R., Lonsdale C., Elias J., Elston R., Capps R., Carpentie J., Juchra J., Liebert J., Monet D., Price S., Seitzer P.: in The Impact of Large Scale Near-Infrared Surveys, ed. by F. Garzón et al., (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1997) pp. 25Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Skrutskie M.F.: in The Impact of Near-Infrared Sky Surveys on Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy, ed. by N. Epchtein, (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1998) pp. 11Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mamon G.A.: in Wide Field Surveys in Cosmology, eds. Y. Mellier & S. Colombi, (Editions Frontiéres: Gif-sur-Yvette 1998) pp. 323Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gardner J.P., Sharples R.M., Carrasco B.E., Frenk C.S.: MNRAS 282, L1 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schröder A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Mamon G.A. Ruphy S.: in Extragalactic Astronomy in the Infrared, ed. by G. A. Mamon et al. (Editions Frontiéres: Gif-sur-Yvette 1997) pp. 381Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schröder A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Mamon G.A.: PASA 16, 42 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Schröder A., Mamon G., Ruphy S.: in The Impact of Near-Infrared Surveys on Galactic and Extragalactic Astronomy, ed. by N. Epchtein (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1998) pp. 205Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mamon G.A.: in Unveiling Large-Scale Structures Behind the Milky Way, ed. by C. Balkowski, R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67, 53 (1994)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hurt R.L., Jarrett T., Cutri R., Skrutskie M., Schneider S., van Driel W.: BAAS 194, 832 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tully R.B., Fisher J.R.: A&A 54, 661 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kerr F.J., Henning P.A.: ApJ 320, L99 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Loan A.J., Burton W.B., Lahav O., Ferguson, H.C., Henning P.A., Lynden-Bell D.: Nature 372, 77 (1994)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Henning P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Rivers A.J., Loan, A.J., Lahav O., Burton W.B.: AJ 115, 584 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rivers A.J., Henning P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: PASA 16, 48 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Koribalski B., Juraszek S.: in Looking Deep in the Southern Sky, ed. by R. Morganti, W. Couch (Springer 1998) pp. 23Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Staveley-Smith L., Juraszek S., Koribalski B.S. Ekers, R.D., Green, A.J., Haynes, R.F., Henning, P.A., Kesteven, M.J., Kraan-Korteweg, R.C., Price, R.M., Sadler, E.M.: AJ 116, 2717 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Henning P.A., Staveley-Smith L., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Sadler E.M.: PASA 16, 35 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Henning P.A., Staveley-Smith L., Ekers R.D., Green A.J., Haynes R.F., Juraszek S., Kesteven M.J., Koribalski B., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Price R.M. Sadler E.M., Schröder A.: Astron. J. (2000), in pressGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Loan A.J., Maddox S.J., Lahav O., Balcells M., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Assendorp R., Almoznino E., Brosch N., Goldberg E., Ofek E.O.: MNRAS 280, 537 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Buta R.J., McCall M.L.: ApJS 124, 33 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Burton W.B., Verheijen M.A.W., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Henning P.A.: A&A 309, 687 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kuno N., Vila-Vilaro B., Nishiyama K.: PASJ 48, 19 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Li J.G., Zhao J.H., Ho P.T.P., Sage L.J.: A&A 307, 424 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tilanus R.P.J., Burton W.B.: A&A 324, 899 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Reynolds C.S., Loan A.J., Fabian A.C., Makishima K., Brandt W.N., Mizuno T.: MNRAS 286, 349 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Zwaan M., Briggs F., Sprayberry D.: PASA 14, 126 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wakker B.P.: Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Groningen (1990)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Burton W.B., Braun R., Walterbos R.A.M., Hoopes C.G.: AJ 117, 194 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hartmann D.: Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Leiden (1994)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hartmann D., Burton W.B.: Atlas of Galactic Neutral Hydrogen (Cambridge University Press 1997)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tammann G.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: in The Large Scale Structure of the Universe; IAU Symp. 79, ed. by M.S. Longair and J. Einasto, (Reidel: Dordrecht 1978), pp. 71Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: AN 300, 181 (1979)ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Staveley-Smith, L., Wilson, W.E., Bird, T.S., Disney, M.J., Ekers, R.D., Freeman, K.C., Haynes, R.F., Sinclair, M.W., Vaile, R.A., Webster, R.L., Wright, A.E.: PASA 13, 243 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Juraszek S.: PASA 16, 38 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Juraszek S., Staveley-Smith L., Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Green A.J., Ekers R.D., Henning P.A., Kesteven M.J., Koribalksi B., Sadler E.M., Schröder A.C.: AJ (2000), in pressGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Woudt P.A., Kraan-Korteweg R.C.: in progress.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fabian A.C.: in Unveiling Large-Scale Structures behind the Milky Way. ed. by C. Balkowski and R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67, 76 (1994)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Edge A.C., Stewart G.C., Fabian A.C., Arnaud, K.A.: MNRAS 245, 559 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jahoda K., Mushotzky R.F.: ApJ 346, 638 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tamura T., Fukazawa Y., Kaneda H., Makishima K., Tashiro M., Tanaka Y., Böhringer H.: PASJ 50, 195 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ebeling H., Mullis C.R., Tully B.R.: BAAS 31 (HEAD meeting), 699 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ebeling H., Mullis C.R., Tully B.R.: (1999) submitted to ApJGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Voges W., Aschenbach B., Boller T., Bäuninger H., Briel U., Burkert W., Dennerl K., Englhauser J., Gruber R., Haberl F., Hartner G., Hasinger G., Kürster M., Pfefiermann E., Pietsch W., Predehl P., Rosso, C., Schmitt J.H.M.M., Trümper J., Zimmermann H.-U.: A&A 349, 389 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ebeling H., Edge A.C., Böhringer H., Allen S.W., Crawford C.S., Fabian A.C., Voges W., Huchra J.P.: MNRAS 301, 881 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lahav O.: in Unveiling Large-Scale Structures behind the Milky Way, ed. by C. Balkowski and R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67, 171 (1994)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hoffman Y.: in Unveiling Large-Scale Structures behind the Milky Way, ed. by C. Balkowski and R.C. Kraan-Korteweg, ASP Conf. Ser. 67, 185 (1994)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bertschinger E., Dekel A.: ApJ 336, 5 (1989)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Strauss M.A., Willick J.A.: Phys. Rep. 26, 27 (1995)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Scharf C., Hoffman Y., Lahav O., Lynden-Bell D.: MNRAS 256, 229 (1992)ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kraan-Korteweg R.C., Woudt P.A.: in Cosmic Velocity Fields, ed. by F. Bouchet and M. Lachiéze-Rey, (Editions Frontiéres: Gif-sur-Yvette 1993) pp. 557Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Santiago B.X., Strauss M.A., Lahav O., Davis M., Dressler A., Huchra J.: ApJ 446, 457 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Baker J.E., Davis M., Strauss M.A., Lahav O., Santiago B.X.: ApJ 508, 6 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Webster M., Lahav O., Fisher K.: MNRAS 287, 425 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bistolas V.: Ph.D. thesis, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renée C. Kraan-Korteweg
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de AstronomíaUniversidad de GuanajuatoGuanajuato GTOMexico

Personalised recommendations