Swarms in Dynamic Environments
Charged particle swarm optimization (CPSO) is well suited to the dynamic search problem since inter-particle repulsion maintains population diversity and good tracking can be achieved with a simple algorithm. This work extends the application of CPSO to the dynamic problem by considering a bi-modal parabolic environment of high spatial and temporal severity. Two types of charged swarms and an adapted neutral swarm are compared for a number of different dynamic environments which include extreme ‘needle-in-the-haystack’ cases. The results suggest that charged swarms perform best in the extreme cases, but neutral swarms are better optimizers in milder environments.
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