Towards Modeling and Testing of IP Routing Protocols

  • Jianping Wu
  • Zhongjie Li
  • Xia Yin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2644)


Routing protocols are typical distributed systems characterized by dynamic, concurrent and distributed behaviors. As the primary function of routing protocols, routing information processing constitutes the main content of routing protocol conformance testing. However, there isn’t a clear model based on which convincing test architecture and test notation can be designed. Also, some important features of routing protocols have not been considered sufficiently in existing test practice. On the other hand, generalized distributed system models, test architectures and test notations usually have limitations when applied directly to specific protocol testing. So it is necessary to study specific cases in order to find a pragmatic and efficient approach. In this paper, an MP-FSM (Finite State Machine with Multiple Ports) model is proposed to describe routing information processing of IP routing protocols. Based on this model and other test requirement particularities, a test architecture called PADTACC (Parallel And Distributed Test Architecture with Centralized-Control) is presented and a test notation called RIPTS (Routing Information Processing Test Script) is defined. We implement the whole approach into a software tester — IRIT (IP Routing Information Tester).


Test Event Test Step Test Component Test Configuration Test Architecture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    RFC1058, RFC2328, RFC1771. URL =
  2. 2.
    Wang Liru, Ye Xinming. A Formal Approach to Conformance Testing of OSPF Routing Protocol. Proc. of the 6th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications, Page(s): 1286–1290Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jun Bi, Jianping Wu. A concurrent TTCN based approach to conformance testing of distributed routing protocol OSPFv2. Proc. of 7th Int. Conf. on Computer Communications and Networks. Page(s): 760–767, 1998Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhao Yixin, Wu Jianping, Yin Xia, et al. Test of BGP-4 based on the Protocol Integrated Test System. Proc. of 6th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Communications. Korea, 2000, 347–355Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu Jianping, Zhao Yixin, Yin Xia. From Active to Passive: Progress in Testing of Internet Routing Protocols. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS. Proceeding of FORTE/PSTV 2001, Korea. 2001. 101–116Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ISO/IEC 9646. Information Processing Systems, Open System Interconnection, OSI Conformance Testing Methodology and Framework-Part 3: The tree and tabular combined notation. 1998.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    HAO R B, LEE D, RAKESH K. et al. Testing IP Routing Protocols — From Probabilistic Algorithms to a Software Tool. KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS. Proc FORTE/PSTV2000. Pisa, Italy. 2000, 249–266Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Agilent Technologies. RouterTester., 2001
  9. 9.
    NetCom Systems. 2000
  10. 10.
    Luo, G., Dssouli, R., Bochmann, G.V. etc. Test generation for the distributed test architecture. International Conference on Information Engineering’ 93, Page(s): 670–674 vol. 2Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee, D., Yannakakis, M. Principles and methods of testing finite state machines—a survey. Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume: 84 Issue: 8, Aug. 1996. Page(s): 1090–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Expect Home Page. URL =

Copyright information

© IFIP 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianping Wu
    • 1
  • Zhongjie Li
    • 1
  • Xia Yin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and TechnologyTsinghua UniversityBeijingP.R.China

Personalised recommendations