Recognizing Time Pressure and Cognitive Load on the Basis of Speech: An Experimental Study
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In an experimental environment, we simulated the situation of a user who gives speech input to a system while walking through an airport. The time pressure on the subjects and the requirement to navigate while speaking were manipulated orthogonally. Each of the 32 subjects generated 80 utterances, which were coded semi-automatically with respect to a wide range of features, such as filled pauses. The experiment yielded new results concerning the effects of time pressure and cognitive load on speech. To see whether a system can automatically identify these conditions on the basis of speech input, we had this task performed for each subject by a Bayesian network that had been learned on the basis of the experimental data for the other subjects. The results shed light on the conditions that determine the accuracy of such recognition.
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