Scalable Resource Control in Active Networks

  • Kostas G. Anagnostakis
  • Michael W. Hicks
  • Sotiris Ioannidis
  • Angelos D. Keromytis
  • Jonathan M. Smith
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1942)


The increased complexity of the service model relative to store-and-forward routers has made resource management one of the paramount concerns in active networking research and engineering. In this paper,we address two major challenges in scaling resource management-to-many-node active networks. The first is the use of market mechanisms and trading amongst nodes and programs with varying degrees of competition and cooperation to provide a scalable approach to managing active network resources. The second is the use of a trust-management architecture to ensure that the participants in the resource management marketplace have a policy-driven “rule of law” in which marketplace decisions can be made and relied upon. We have used lottery scheduling and the Keynote trust-management system for our implementation, for which we provide some initial performance indications.


Active Network Active Node Active Loader Trust Management Resource Access 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    D. S. Alexander.ALIEN: A Generalized Computing Model of Active Networks PhD thesis,University of Pennsylvania,September 1998.344,348Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. Blake, D. Black, M. Carlson, E. Davies, Z. Wang,and W. Weiss.An Architecture for Differentiated Services.Technical report,IETF RFC 2475,December 1998.352Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, J. Ioannidis,and A. D. Keromytis.The keynote trust management system version 2. Internet RFC 2704,September 1999.344,347Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum,and J. Lacy.Decentralized Trust Management. In Proc. of the 17th Symposium on Security and Privacy pages 164.173.IEEE Computer Society Press,Los Alamitos,1996.347Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Scott Clearwater.Why market-based control?In Scott Clearwater, Ed., Market-Based Control: A Paradigm for Distributed Resource Allocation pages v–xi. World Scientific Publishing,1996.345Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Grzegorz Czajkowski and Thorsten von Eicken.JRes:A Resource Accounting Interface for Java. In Proceedings of the 1998 ACM OOPSLA Conference, Vancouver, BC October 1998.344Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    James Gosling, Bill Joy,and Guy Steele.The Java Language Specification Addison Wesley,Reading,1996.344Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Object Management Group.A Discussion of the Object Management Architecture January 1997.352Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Object Management Group.Trading Object Service Specification. In OMG Doc 97-12-23 March 1997.352Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Kieran Harty and David Cheriton.AMarket Approach to Operating System Memory Allocation. In Scott Clearwater, Ed., Market-Based Control: A Paradigm for Distributed Resource Allocation pages 126–155. World Scientific Publishing, 1996.344Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Hicks, P. Kakkar, J. T. Moore, C. A. Gunter,and S. Nettles.PLAN:A Programming anguage for Active Networks.Technical Report MS-CIS-98-25, Department of Computer and Information Science,University of Pennsylvania, February 1998.344Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Michael Hicks and Angelos D. Keromytis.A Secure PLAN. In Stefan Covaci, editor, Proceedings of the First International Working Conference on Active Networks volume 1653 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science pages 307–314. Springer-Verlag, June 1999. Extended version at 344
  13. [13]
    E. Kovacs and S. Wirag.Trading and Distributed Application Management: An Integrated Approach. In Proceedings of the 5th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operation and Management October 1994. 352Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Paul Menage.RCANE:A Resource Controlled Framework for Active Network Services. In Proc. of the 1st International Working Conference on Active Networks June 1999.344,346Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    M. Merz, K. Moeller,and W. Lamersdorf.Service Trading and Mediation in Distributed Computing Systems. In Proc. IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS),pages 450–457,1994.352Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Mark S. Miller, David Krieger, Norman Hardy, Chris Hibbert,and E. Dean Tribble. An Automated Auction in ATM Network Bandwidth. In Scott Clearwater, Ed., Market-Based Control: A Paradigm for Distributed Resource Allocation pages 96–125. World Scientific Publishing,1996.344Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Jonathan T. Moore.Safe and Efficient Active Packets.Technical Report MS-CIS-99-24, Computer and Information Science, The University of Pennsilyvania, 1999. 344Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Richard Mortier NeilStratford. An Economic Approach to Adaptive Resource Management. In Proc. of Hot topics in Operating Systems 1999.344Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    K. Nicols, V. Jacobson,and L. Zhang.ATwo Bit Differentiated Services Architecture for the Internet. Internet Draft, November 1998. 352Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Morris Sloman and Emil Lupu.Policy Specification for Programmable Networks. In International Working Conference on Active Networks (IWAN),1999.344Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Andreas Terzis, Jun Ogawa, Sonia Tsui, Lan Wang,and Lixia Zhang.A Prototype Implementation of the Two-Tier Architecture for Differentiated Services. In Fifth IEEE Real-Time Technology and Applications Symposium, Vancouver, BC, Canada June 1999.352Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    C. A. Waldspurger and W. E. Weihl.An Object-Oriented Framework for Modular Resource Management. In Proc. of the 5th International Workshop on Object Orientation in Operating Systems pages 138–143,October 1996.350Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    C. A. Waldspurger and W. E. Weihl. Lottery Scheduling:Flexible Proportional Share resource management. In Proc. of the First Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation pages 1–11,November 1994.344,350Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    David Wetherall. Active Network Vision and Reality:essons from a Capsule-based System. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles, Kiawah Island, SC December 1999.344Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kostas G. Anagnostakis
    • 1
  • Michael W. Hicks
    • 1
  • Sotiris Ioannidis
    • 1
  • Angelos D. Keromytis
    • 1
  • Jonathan M. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Distributed Systems Laboratory Department of Computer and Information ScienceUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations