Number Theoretic Background
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This paper is an expanded version of some of the lectures given at the summer school in Bologna. In these lectures we gave an introduction to very basic number theory, assuming practically no background. The lectures were intended for graduate students in Math and Physics and while the material is completely standard, we tried to make the presentation as elementary as possible.
Some of the easier proofs are included, others are relegated to exercises, but several of the deeper facts are stated without proof. Most of the material may be found in classic texts such as  and .
KeywordsFundamental Solution Integer Solution Great Common Divisor Primitive Root Riemann Hypothesis
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