Methodologies and Mechanism Design in Group Awareness Support for Internet-Based Real-Time Distributed Collaboration

  • Minh Hong Tran
  • Gitesh K. Raikundalia
  • Yun Yang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2642)


The first purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the most commonly-used awareness mechanisms, namely, What You See Is What I See, telepointers, multi-user scrollbars, radar views and distortion-oriented views. These mechanisms were derived from researchers’ intuition, without prior experimental investigation of what awareness information end-users really need. This research utilised a completely user-centered approach to determine relevant awareness mechanisms. The novelty of this approach is in the use of usability experiments to identify awareness mechanisms. In addition to the illustration of several innovative mechanisms, this research has also successfully differentiated the importance of different awareness information in maintaining group awareness. The significance of different awareness information has been thoroughly compared. These results help designers to know which information must be provided to all team members.


Local User Remote User Group Awareness Modification Director Mouse Cursor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baecker, R. M., Nastos, D., Posner, I. R., Mawby, K. L.: The User-centred Iterative Design of Collaborative Writing Software, Proc of CHI’93, Amsterdam (1993) 399–405.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beaudouin-Lafon, M., Karsenty, A.: Transparency and Awareness in a Real-Time Groupware System, Proc of UIST’92, CA (1992) 171–180.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benford, S., Bowers, J., Greenhalgh, C., Snowdon, D.: User Embodiment in Collaborative Virtual Environments, Proc of CHI’95, USA, (1995) 242–249.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bly, S. A., Harrisor, S. R., Irwin, S.: Media Spaces: Bringing People Together in a Video, Audio, and Computing Environment, Communications of ACM, vol. 36 (1993) 28–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dourish, P., Bellotti, V.: Awareness and Coordination in Shared Workspaces, Proc of CSCW’92, Toronto, Canada (1992) 107–114.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ellis, C. A., Gibbs, S. J., Rein, G.: Groupware: Some Issues and Experiences, Communications of the ACM, vol. 34 (1991) 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenberg, S., Gutwin, C., Cockburn, A.: Awareness through Fisheye Views in relaxed-WYSIWIS Groupware, Proc of Graphics Interface 1996, Toronto, Canada (1996) 28–38.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenberg, S., Gutwin, C., Cockburn, A.: Using Distortion-oriented Displays to Support Workspace Awareness, Proc of the HCI’96, Imperial College, London (1996) 229–314.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greenberg, S., Gutwin, C., Roseman, M.: Semantic Telepointers for Groupware, Proc of OzCHI’96, Australia (1996) 54–61.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grudin, J.: Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers, Communications of the ACM, vol. 37 (1994) 92–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gutwin, C.: Improving Focus Targeting in Interactive Fisheye Views, Proc of CHI’02, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA (2002) 267–274.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gutwin, C., Greenberg, S.: The Effects of Workspace Awareness Support on the Usability of Real-time Distributed Groupware, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, vol. 6 (1999) 243–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gutwin, C., Greenberg, S.: A Descriptive Framework of Workspace Awareness for Real-Time Groupware, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, The Journal of Collaborative Computing, vol. 11 (2002).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gutwin, C., Roseman, M., Greenberg, S.: A Usability Study of Awareness Widgets in a Shared Workspace Groupware System, Proc of CSCW’96, Massachusetts (1996) 258–267.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hayne, S., Pendergast, M., Greenberg, S.: Implementing Gesturing with Cursors in Group Support Systems, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 10 (1994) 42–61.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salvador, T., Scholtz, J., Larson, J.: The Denver Model for Groupware Design, ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, vol. 28 (1996) 52–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stefik, M., Bobrow, D. G., Foster, G., Lanning, S., Tatar, D.: WYSIWIS Revised: Early Experiences with Multiuser Interfaces, ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems, vol. 5 (1987) 147–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Suthers, D. D.: Architectures for Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT’01), Madison, Wisconsin (2001) 25–28.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tran, M. H.: A Group Awareness Framework for Real-time Cooperative Editing based on Experimental Study using REDUCE, Research Report of Master of Information Technology, School of Information Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia (2002).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tran, M. H., Raikundalia, G. K., Yang, Y.: Usability Experiments for Determining Document-Related Awareness in Real-time Cooperative Editing, Proc of the Sixth Australasian Document Computing Symposium ADCS’01, Coffs Harbour (2001) 95–98.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tran, M. H., Raikundalia, G. K., Yang, Y.: Split Window View and Modification Director: Innovative Awareness Mechanisms in Real-time Collaborative Writing, Proc of the Conference on Human Factors HF’2002 (CD ISBN: 0-85590-789-5), Melbourne, Australia (2002).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Weir, P., Cockburn, A.: Distortion-oriented Workspace Awareness in DOME, British Computer Society Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield (1998) 239–252.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yang, Y., Sun, C., Zhang, Y., Jia, X.: Real-time Cooperative Editing on the Internet, IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 4 (2000) 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minh Hong Tran
    • 1
  • Gitesh K. Raikundalia
    • 1
  • Yun Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Internet Computing and E-Commerce (CICEC)Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia

Personalised recommendations