Advertisement

Coherent X-rays at MAMI

  • W. Lauth
  • H. Backe
  • O. Kettigb
  • P. Kunz
  • A. Sharafutdinov
  • T. Weber
Conference paper

Abstract

Coherent radiation in the range from soft X-rays up to hard X-rays, produced by the low-emittance electron beam of MAMI, can be used for various applications. Novel types of interferometers have been developed for the measurement of the complex index of refraction of thin self-supporting foils. For the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray region the interferometer consists of two collinear undulators, and a grating spectrometer. A foil placed between the undulators causes a phase shift and an attenuation of the oscillation amplitude. The complex index of refraction has been measured at the L 2,3-absorption edges of nickel. A novel method is described for the measurement of the X-ray magnetic circular birefringence. For the hard X-ray region the interferometer consists of two foils at which the 855 MeV electron beam produces transition radiation. Distinct interference oscillations have been observed as a function of both, the photon emission angle and the distance between the foils. The refractive index decrement δ(ω) of a 2 µm thick nickel sample foil has been measured at X-ray energies around the K absorption edge at 8333 eV and at 9930 eV with an accuracy of better than 1.5 %. The line width of parametric X radiation (PXR) was measured in backward geometry with a Si single-crystal monochromator. Upper limits of the line width of 42meV, 50meV, and 44meV, have been determined for the (333), (444) and (555) reflections at photon energies of 5932 eV, 7909 eV, and 9887 eV, respectively. Small angle scattering of the electrons in the crystal leads to a stochastic frequency modulation of the exponentially damped wave train which results in the line broadening. To elucidate the quest if the production of PXR is a kinematical or a dynamical process the radiation from silicon single-crystal targets, emitted close to the electron direction, has been studied. The observed interference structures and the narrow-band radiation in forward direction shows that PXR is produced in a dynamical process.

Keywords

Line Width Silicon Single Crystal Synchrotron Radiation Source Beam Spot Size Sample Foil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Backe, K.H. Brenzinger, F. Buskirk, S. Dambach, Th. Doerk, N. Eftekhari, H. Euteneuer, F. Görgen, C. Herberg, F. Hagenbuck, K. Johann, K.H. Kaiser, O. Kettig, G. Knies, G. Kube, W. Lauth, B. Limburg, J. Lind, H. Schöpe, G. Stephan, Th. Walcher, Th. Tonn, R. Zahn, in R.L. Johnson, H. Schmidt-Böcking, B.F. Sonntag (Editors), X-Ray and Inner-Shell Processes: 17th International Conference, AIP Conf. Proc. 389 (AIP Press, Woodbury, New York, 1997).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Hagenbuck, H. Backe, N. Clawiter, H. Euteneuer, F. Görgen, P. Holl, K. Johann, K.-H. Kaiser, J. Kemmer, Th. Kerschner, O. Kettig, H. Koch, G. Kube, W. Lauth, H. Matthäy, M. Schütrumpf, R. Stötter, L. Strüder, Th. Walcher, A. Wilms, C.v. Zanthier, M. Zemter, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 48, 843 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. El-Ghazaly, H. Backe, W. Lauth, G. Kube, P. Kunz, A. Sharafutdinov, T. Weber, these proceedings.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Kube, H. Backe, H. Euteneuer, A. Grendel, F. Hagenbuck, H. Hartmann, K.H. Kaiser, W. Lauth, H. Schöpe, G. Wagner, Th. Walcher, M. Kretzschmar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 056501 (2002).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Backe, W. Lauth, H. Mannweiler, H. Rochholz, K. Aulenbacher, R. Barday, H. Euteneuer, K.-H. Kaiser, G. Kube, F. Schwellnus, V. Tioukine, in Proceedings of NATO Advanced Radiation Sources and Applications, Nor-Hamberd, Yerevan, Armenia, 2004, edited by H. Wiedemann, NATO Sci. Ser. II, Vol. 199 (Springer, Dortrecht, 2006) p. 267.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Backe, W. Lauth, A. Rueda, M. El-Ghazaly, P. Kunz, A. Picard, A. Scharafutdinov, A. Sossalla, T. Weber in Topics in Heavy Ion Physics-Proceedings of the Memorial Symp. for G. Soff, Frankfurt, Germany, 2005, edited by W. Greiner, J. Reinhardt, (EP Systema Bt., Budapest, 2005) p. 1.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.V. Korol, A.V. Solov’yov, W. Greiner, Int. Jour. Mod. Phys. E-Nucl. Phys. 13, 867 (2004).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Materik, C.J. Sparks, K. Fischer (Editors), Resonant Anomalous X-ray Scattering (North Holland, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, 1994).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy, Springer Ser. Surface Sci., Vol. 25 (Springer, New York, 1992).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Lengeler, in C.J. Sparks, K. Fischer (Editors), Resonant Anomalous X-ray Scattering (North Holland, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, 1994) [8]}, p. 35.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    U. Bonse, M. Hart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 238 (1965).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.K. Warburton, K.F. Ludwig, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8424 (1986).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Deutsch, M. Hart, Phys. Rev. B 30, 643 (1984).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Freund, in Anomomalous Scattering, edited by R. Ramaseshan, S.C. Abrahams (Munksgaard Copenhagen, 1975) p. 69.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Kato, S. Tanemura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 22 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R.L Blake, J.C. Davis, D.E. Graessle, T.H. Burbine, E.M. Gullikson, in C.J. Sparks, K. Fischer (Editors), Resonant Anomalous X-ray Scattering (North Holland, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, 1994) [8]}, p. 79.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    F. Polack, D. Joyeux, J. Svatos, D. Phalippou, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 2180 (1995).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Dambach, H. Backe, Th. Doerk, N. Eftekhari, H. Euteneuer, F. Görgen, F. Hagenbuck, K.H. Kaiser, O. Kettig, G. Kube, W. Lauth, H. Schöpe, A. Steinhof, Th. Tonn, Th. Walcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5473 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Itou, T. Harada, T. Kita, Appl. Optics 28, 146 (1989).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Soufli, E.M. Gullikson, Appl. Opt. 36, 5499 (1997).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Kerr Del Grande, Physica Scripta 41, 110 (1990).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Stöhr, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 200, 470 (1999).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Schütz, W. Wagner, W. Wilhelm, P. Kienle, R. Zeller, R. Frahm, G. Materlik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 737 (1987).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.B. Kortright, Sang-Koog Kim, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12216 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    http://www.andor-tech.com/germany/products/oem.cfm.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Soltau, P. Holl, J. Kemmer, S. Krisch, C.v. Zanthier, D. Hauff, R. Richter, H. Bräuninger, R. Hartmann, G. Hartner, N. Krause, N. Meidinger, E. Pfeffermann, C. Reppin, G. Schwaab, L. Strüder, J. Trümper, E. Kendziorra, J. Krämer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 377, 340 (1996).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M.L. Cherry, G. Hartmann, D. Müller, T.A. Prince, Phys. Rev. D 10, 3594 (1974).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.J. Moran, B.A. Dahling, P.J. Ebert, M.A. Piestrup, B.L. Bergman, J.O. Kephart, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1223 (1986).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. Goedtkind, J.-M. Salomé, X. Atru, P. Dhez, M. Jablonka, N. Maene, F. Poortmans, L. Wartski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 56/57, 1060 (1991).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.A. Piestrup, D.G. Boyers, C.I. Pincus, Qiang Li, G.D. Hallewell, M.J. Moran, D.M. Skopik, R.M. Silzer, X.K. Maruyama, D.D. Snyder, G.B. Rothbart, Phys. Rev. A 45, 1183 (1992).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    V.V. Kaplin, V.N. Zabaev, E.I. Rozum, S.R. Uglov, S.A. Vorobiev, Phys. Lett. A 174, 165 (1993).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. Backe, S. Gampert, A. Grendel, H.J. Hartmann, W. Lauth, Ch. Weinheimer, R. Zahn, F.R. Buskirk, H. Euteneuer, K.H. Kaiser, G. Stephan, Th. Walcher, Z. Phys. A 349, 87 (1994).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    O. Kettig, H. Backe, N. Clawiter, S. Dambach, Th. Doerk, N. Elbai, H. Euteneuer, F. Hagenbuck, P. Holl, H. Jacobs, K.H. Kaiser, J. Kemmer, Th. Kerschner, G. Kube, H. Koch, W. Lauth, H. Mannweiler, H. Matthäy, H. Schöpe, D. Schroff, M. Schüttrumpf, R. Stötter, L. Strüder, Th. Walcher, A. Wilms, C.v. Zanthier, M. Zemter, in R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, E.P. Kanter, B. Krässig, S.H. Southworth, L. Young (Editors) X-ray and Inner-Shell Processes: 18th International Conference, AIP Conf. Proc. 506 (AIP Press, Melville, New York, 2000).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    O. Kettig, Dissertation, Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Mainz, 2000 (in German).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Backe, N. Clawiter, S. Dambach, H. Euteneuer, F. Hagenbuck, K.-H. Kaiser, O. Kettig, G. Kube, W. Lauth, Th. Walcher, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Fundamenttal and Applied Aspects of Modern Physics, Lüderitz, Namibia, 2000, edited by S.H. Connell, R. Tegen (World Scientific, New Jersey, London, Singapore, Hong Kong, 2001) p. 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O. Kettig et al., to be published.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    B.L. Henke, E.M. Gullikson, J.C. Davis, Atom. Data and Nucl. Data Tabl. 54, 181 (1993).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    E. Storm, H.I. Israel, Atom. Data and Nucl. Data Tabl. A 7, 565 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    U. Bonse, G. Materlik, Z. Phys. B 24, 189 (1976).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    U. Bonse, I. Hartmann-Lotsch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 222, 185 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    V.G. Baryshevsky, Dokl. Akad. Nauk BSSR 15, 306 (1971).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    V.G. Baryshevsky, I.D. Feranchuk, Zh. Exper. Teor. Fiz. 61, 944 (1971); (Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 50 (1972); addendum, ibid 64, 760 (1973)).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G.M. Garibian, C. Yang, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 930 (1971), (Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 495 (1972)).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G.M. Garibian, C. Yang, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 63, 1198 (1972), (Sov. Phys. JETP 36, 631 (1973)).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Ter-Mikaelian, High-Energy Electromagnetic Processes in condensed Media (Wiley-Interscience, New York, London, Sydney, Toronto, 1972).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    K.-H. Brenzinger, C. Herberg, B. Limburg, H. Backe, S. Dambach, H. Euteneuer, F. Hagenbuck, H. Hartmann, K. Johann, K.H. Kaiser, O. Kettig, G. Knies, G. Kube, W. Lauth, H. Schöpe, Th. Walcher, Z. Phys. A 358, 107 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Freudenberger, H. Genz, V.V. Morokhovskyi, A. Richter, J.P.F. Sellschop, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 270 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    H. Backe, G. Kube, W. Lauth, Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Electron-Photon Interaction in Dense Media, Nor-Hamberd, Yerevan, Armenia, 2001, edited by H. Wiedemann, NATO Sci. Ser. II, Vol. 49 (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 2001) p. 153.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    5th International Symposium on Radiation from Relativistic Electrons in Periodic Structures (RREPS-01), Lake Aya, Russia, September, 2001, Topical Issue of Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 201, 1 (2003).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    X. Artru, P. Rullhusen, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 145, 1 (1998); addendum, ibid 173, 16 (2001).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    V. Baryshevsky, I. Feranchuk, J. Phys. (Paris) 44, 913 (1983).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    I. Feranchuk, A. Ivashin, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 1981 (1985).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Nitta, Phys. Lett. A 158, 270 (1991).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. Caticha, Phys. Rev. B 45, 9541 (1992).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A.V. Shchagin, V.I. Pristupa, N.A. Khizhnyak, Phys. Lett. A 148, 485 (1990).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Freudenberger, V.B. Gavrikov, M. Galemann, H. Genz, L. Groening, V.L. Morokhovskii, V.V. Morokhovskii, U. Nething, A. Richter, J.P.F. Sellschop, N.F. Shulga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2487 (1995).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    O.M. Lugoskaya, S.A. Stepanov, Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 36, 478 (1991) and http://sergey.gmca.aps.anl.gov/cgi/X0h.html.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. Freudenberger, H. Genz, V.V. Morokhovskii, A. Richter, V.L. Morokhovskii, U. Nething, R. Zahn, J.P.F. Sellschop, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 267 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    K.-H. Brenzinger, B. Limburg, H. Backe, S. Dambach, H. Euteneuer, F. Hagenbuck, C. Herberg, K.H. Kaiser, O. Kettig, G. Kube, W. Lauth, H. Schöpe, Th. Walcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2462 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    H. Backe, C. Ay, N. Clawiter, Th. Doerk, M. El-Ghazaly, K.-H. Kayser, O. Kettig, G. Kube, F. Hagenbuck, W. Lauth, A. Rueda, A. Scharafutdinov, D. Schroff, T. Weber in: W. Greiner, A. Solov’yov, S. Misicu (Editors) Proceedings Symp. Channeling-Bent Crystals-Radiation Processes, Frankfurt (Germany) 2003 (EP Systema, Debrecen, 2003) p. 41.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    H. Nitta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 69, 3462 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    V.G. Baryshevsky, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 122, 13 (1997).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. Kubankin, N. Nasonov, V. Sergienko, I. Vnukov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 201, 97 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    N. Nasonov, V. Sergienko, N. Noskov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 201, 67 (2003).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    N. Aleinik, A.N. Baldin, E.A. Bogomazova, I.E. Vnukov, B.N. Kalinin, A.S. Kubankin, N.N. Nasonov, G.A. Naumenko, A.P. Potylitsyn, A.F. Sharafutdinov, JETP Lett. 80, 393 (2004) (Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80, 447 (2004)).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    H. Backe, A. Rueda, W. Lauth, N. Clawiter, M. El-Ghazaly, P. Kunz, T. Weber, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 234, 138 (2005).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    A. Caticha, Phys. Rev. A 40, 4322 (1989).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    C.D. Back, D. Weller, J. Heidmann, D. Mauri, D. Guarisco, E.L. Garwin, H.C. Siegmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3251 (1998).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Lauth
    • 1
  • H. Backe
    • 1
  • O. Kettigb
    • 1
  • P. Kunz
    • 1
  • A. Sharafutdinov
    • 1
  • T. Weber
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Kernphysik der Universität MainzMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations