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A control flow graph (CFG) of a program is defined by a directed flow graph G = (N, E, x, y) with a set of nodes N and a set of edges \( E \subseteq N \times N \) . A node u ∈ N represents a program instruction (statement), an edge u → v ∈ E indicates transfer of control between instructions u, v ∈ N. Node x ∈ N and node y ∈ N are the unique start and end node of G, respectively. Consider the control flow graph in Fig. 9.1. We have a set of nodes N = x, 1,..., 7, y and a set of edges. The start node is denoted by x and the end node by y.
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