Tracing the Source of a Shredded Document
Consider two ordinary, seemingly identical plain paper shredders labeled A and B.Whe n each of the two shredders is fed a blank sheet of paper, the resulting remnants are sufficiently similar that they are indistinguishable upon visual inspection.Now suppose that one of the shredders has been modified to introduce imperceptible variations in the size of each remnant it cuts. One of the shredders is then selected at random to destroy a blank sheet.By examination of the resulting paper remnants, can one determine if the sheet was shredded by A or B?
In this paper we show how information hidden in the size and shape of shredded page remnants can be used to reveal the identity of the device used for shredding.W e describe means for modifying shredders to introduce this hidden information. Experimental results reveal that properly embedded information can survive the severe nonlinear distortions introduced by the mechanics of paper shredding.F inally, we consider the question of whether paper shreds could reveal shredder identity even in the absence of device modifications.
Keywordsjigsaw puzzle reconstruction machine identification information hiding detection theory image analysis forensic science
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- van Renesse, R. L.: Optical Document Security. Artech House, Boston (1993) 387Google Scholar
- Wagner, N. R.: Fingerprinting. Proceedings of the 1983 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer Society (1983) 18–22 388Google Scholar
- Golb, N.: Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls? The Search for the Secret of Qumran. Scribner, New York (1995) 388Google Scholar
- Ogden, J. A.: The Siting of Papyrus Fragments: An Experimental Application of Digital Computers. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glascow (1969) 388Google Scholar
- Levison, M.: The Siting of Fragments. The Computer Journal, vol 7, no 4 (1965) 388Google Scholar
- Helstrom, C. W.: Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers. MacMillan Publishing Co., New York (1984)Google Scholar
- UPC Symbol Specification Manual. Uniform Code Council, Inc., Dayton Ohio (1986). See http://www.uc-council.org/re.ib/01302/d36-t.htm 396
- Information Security Team: Terminator VIII: How to Destroy your Classified Materials. Department of Defense Security Institute (1992). See http://www.dss.mil/training/term4/doc 398
- Cohen, F.: The Mathematics of Shredding. Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE Computer Society (2002) 399Google Scholar