Natural Language Watermarking and Tamperproofing
Two main results in the area of information hiding in natural language text are presented. A semantically-based scheme dramatically improves the information-hiding capacity of any text through two tech- niques: (i) modifying the granularity of meaning of individual sentences, whereas our own previous scheme kept the granularity fixed, and (ii) halving the number of sentences affected by the watermark. No longer a “long text”, short watermark. approach, it now makes it possible to wa- termark short texts, like wire agency reports. Using both the above- mentioned semantic marking scheme and our previous syntactically- based method hides information in a way that reveals any non-trivial tampering with the text (while re-formatting is not considered to be tampering.the problem would be solved trivially otherwise by hiding a hash of the text) with a probability 1-2 -β(n+1) , n being its number of sentences and β a small positive integer based on the extent of co- referencing.
KeywordsImage Watermark Watermark Scheme Information Hiding Short Text Syntax Tree
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Atallah, M. J., V. Raskin, M. Crogan, C. F. Hempelmann, F. Kerschbaum, D. Mohamed, and S. Naik 2001. Natural Language Watermarking: Design, Analysis, and a Proof-of-Concept Implementation. In: I. S. Moskowitz (ed.), Information Hiding: 4th International Workshop, IH 2001, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 2001 Proceedings. Berlin: Springer, 185–199.Google Scholar
- Atallah, M. J., C. J. McDonough, V. Raskin, and S. Nirenburg 2001. Natural Language Processing for Information Assurance and Security: An Overview and Implementations. In: M. Shaeffer (ed.), NSPW’ 00: Proceedings of Workshop on New Paradigms in Information Security, Cork, Ireland, September 2000. New York: ACM Press, 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nirenburg, S., and V. Raskin 2003. Ontological Semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (forthcoming). Pre-publication draft, http://crl.nmsu.edu/Staff.Pages/Technical/sergei/book/index-book.html.
- Katzenbeisser, S. C. 2000. Principles of Steganography. In: S. Katzenbeisser and F. A. P. Petitcolas (eds.), Information Hiding. Techniques for Stenography and Digital Watermarking. Boston: Artech, 17–41.Google Scholar
- Brassil, J., N. F. Maxemchuk, and L. O. Gorman 1994. Electronic Marking and Identification Technique to Discourage Document Copying. Proceedings of INFOCOM’ 94, 1278–1287.Google Scholar
- Maxemchuk, N. F. 1994. Electronic Document Distribution. AT&T Technical Journal, September/October, 73–80.Google Scholar
- Low, S. H., N. F. Maxemchuk, and A. M. Lapone 1998. Document Identification for Copyright Protection Using Centroid Detection. IEEE Transactions on Communication 46(3), 372–383.Google Scholar
- Wayner, P. 1992. Mimic Functions. Cryptologia XVI(3), 193–214.Google Scholar
- Wayner, P. 1995. Strong Theoretical Steganography. Cryptologia XIX(3), 285–299.Google Scholar
- Chapman, M., and G. Davida 1997. Hiding the Hidden: A Software System for Concealing Ciphertext as Innocuous Text. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Communication Security. Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences 1334. Berlin: Springer, 333–345.Google Scholar
- Anderson, R. J., 1996. Stretching the limits of steganography. In: R. Anderson (ed.), Information Hiding. First International Workshop. Cambridge, UK, May June 1996. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1174, Berlin: Springer, 39–48.Google Scholar
- Anderson, R. J., and F. A. P. Petitcolas 1998. On the limits of steganography. IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications 16:4, 474–481.Google Scholar