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Natural Language Watermarking and Tamperproofing

  • Mikhail J. Atallah
  • Victor Raskin
  • Christian F. Hempelmann
  • Mercan Karahan
  • Radu Sion
  • Umut Topkara
  • Katrina E. Triezenberg
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2578)

Abstract

Two main results in the area of information hiding in natural language text are presented. A semantically-based scheme dramatically improves the information-hiding capacity of any text through two tech- niques: (i) modifying the granularity of meaning of individual sentences, whereas our own previous scheme kept the granularity fixed, and (ii) halving the number of sentences affected by the watermark. No longer a “long text”, short watermark. approach, it now makes it possible to wa- termark short texts, like wire agency reports. Using both the above- mentioned semantic marking scheme and our previous syntactically- based method hides information in a way that reveals any non-trivial tampering with the text (while re-formatting is not considered to be tampering.the problem would be solved trivially otherwise by hiding a hash of the text) with a probability 1-2 -β(n+1) , n being its number of sentences and β a small positive integer based on the extent of co- referencing.

Keywords

Image Watermark Watermark Scheme Information Hiding Short Text Syntax Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikhail J. Atallah
    • 1
  • Victor Raskin
    • 1
  • Christian F. Hempelmann
    • 1
  • Mercan Karahan
    • 1
  • Radu Sion
    • 1
  • Umut Topkara
    • 1
  • Katrina E. Triezenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.CERIAS Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and SecurityPurdue UniversityUSA

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