Advertisement

Audio Watermark Robustness to Desynchronization via Beat Detection

  • Darko Kirovski
  • Hagai Attias
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2578)

Abstract

Watermarks are hidden, imperceptible, and robust marks augmented into a host signal such as audio or video. Recent studies show that in the presence of an adversary, “blind” watermark detection within an attacked clip is an exceptionally difficult task. In this paper, we explore two technologies, beat detection and block redundant coding, to combat de-synchronization and watermark estimation as two attacks that have demonstrated superior effectiveness in preventing watermark detectors from reliably accomplishing their goal. As a result, we have achieved robustness of spread-spectrum watermarks augmented in audio clips to almost arbitrary constant time-warp, pitch-bending, and wow-and- flutter of up to 1%. The adversary can remove the watermark by subtracting an estimate of the watermark from the signal with an amplitude in excess of 6dB with respect to the host. Such an attack vector typically affects substantially the fidelity of the “pirated” recording.

Keywords

Audio Signal Audio Watermark Audio Clip Human Auditory System Watermark System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Anderson, R. J., Petitcolas, F.A.P.: On the limits of steganography. Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.16, pp.474–481, IEEE (1998). 161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Bassia, P., Pitas, I.: Robust audio watermarking in the time domain. EUSIPCO, vol.1. Rodos, Greece, IEEE (1998). 161Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Boneh D., Shaw J.: Collusion secure fingerprinting for digital data. Transactions on Information Theory, vol.44, pp.1897–1905, IEEE (1998). 163zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Chen, B., Wornell, G. W.: Digital watermarking and Information embedding using dither modulation. Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, Redondo Beach, CA, IEEE (1998). 161Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Cox, I. J., Kilian, J., Leighton, T., Shamoon, T.: A secure, robust watermark for multimedia. Information Hiding Workshop, Cambridge, UK, (1996). 161, 164Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Dempster A.P., Laird N.M., Rubin D.B.: Maximum Likelihood from Incomplete Data via the EM Algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, vol.39, no.1, pp.1–38, (1977). 162zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Gruhl, D., Lu, A., Bender, W.: Echo hiding. Information Hiding Workshop, Cambridge, UK, (1996). 161Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Haitsma J. A., Kalker T., Oostveen J.: Robust Audio Hashing for Content Identification. International Workshop on Content Based Multimedia and Indexing, Brescia, Italy, 2001. 163Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Hartung, F., Su, J.K., Girod, B.: Spread spectrum watermarking: malicious attacks and counter-attacks. Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, San Jose, CA, SPIE (1999).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Jessop P.: The Business Case for Audio Watermarking. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, vol.4, pp.2077–2080, Phoenix, AZ, (1999). 162Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Katzenbeisser S., Petitcolas, F.A.P., (eds.): Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking. Artech House, Boston (2000). 161Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kirovski D., Malvar H.: Robust Covert Communication over a Public Audio Channel Using Spread Spectrum. Information Hiding Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, (2001). 161, 162, 165, 167, 170, 171, 172Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Kirovski D., Malvar H.: Robust Spread-Spectrum Audio Watermarking. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Salt Lake City, UT, IEEE (2001). 165Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Kirovski D., Malvar H., Yacobi Y.: A Dual Watermarking and Fingerprinting System. Microsoft Research Technical Report, (2001). 160, 161, 163, 174Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Kirovski D., Malvar H.: Embedding and Detecting Spread Spectrum Watermarks under The Estimation Attack. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Orlando, FL, IEEE (2002). 161, 174, 175Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Linnartz, J. P., van Dijk, M.: Analysis of the sensitivity attack against electronic watermarks in images. Information Hiding Workshop, Portland, OR, (1998). 161Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Malvar H.: A modulated complex lapped transform and its application to audio processing. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Phoenix, AZ, IEEE (1999). 165Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Malvar, H. S.: Auditory masking in audio compression. Greennebaum, K. (ed.): Audio Anecdotes. Kluwer, New York, (2001). 165Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Neubauer, C., Herre, J.: Digital watermarking and its influence on audio quality. 105th Convention, San Francisco, CA. Audio En-gineering Society (1998). 161, 165Google Scholar
  20. [22]
    Su, J. K., Girod, B.: Power-spectrum condition for energy-efficient watermarking. International Conference on Image Processing, Yokohama, Japan, IEEE (1999).Google Scholar
  21. [23]
    Swanson, M. D., Zhu, B., Tewfik, A. H., Boney, L.: Robust audio watermarking using perceptual masking. Signal Processing, vol.66, pp.337–355, (1998). 161, 164, 165zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [24]
    Szepanski, W.: A signal theoretic method for creating forgery-proof documents for automatic verification. In: Carnahan Conf. on Crime Countermeasures, Lexington, KY, pp.101–109, (1979). 161, 164Google Scholar
  23. [25]
    van Trees, H. L.: Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. Part I, New York: John Wiley and Sons, (1968). 164zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darko Kirovski
    • 1
  • Hagai Attias
    • 1
  1. 1.Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way RedmondUSA

Personalised recommendations