Robust Image Watermark Using Radon Transform and Bispectrum Invariants

  • Hyung-Shin Kim 
  • Yunju Baek
  • Heung-Kyu Lee 
  • Young-Ho Suh 
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2578)


Image watermark that is resistant to geometric distortion is remained to be an unsolved problem. Difficulty of the probelm comes from the situation that the watermark should be extracted without any information of the original image. In this paper, we review this problem and propose a new watermarking scheme based on invariant pattern recognition theory. We propose an invariant watermark using the Radon transform and higher order spectra. A bispectrum feature vector of the image is used as the watermark. Our approach differs from the previous methods in that we embed watermark into the phase of the higher order spectra. Also, our Radon embedding grid outperforms the Fourier-Mellin based methods. We devised a new embedding method which allows detection of the watermark when there is no exact inverse function during embedding. As we use the Radon transform, our method can be used for medical images. We show the invariance of the designed watermark with mathematical proofs. Experimental results confirm that this scheme is resistant to geometric distortions.


Feature Vector Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Watermark Image Watermark Scheme Geometric Distortion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyung-Shin Kim 
    • 1
  • Yunju Baek
    • 1
  • Heung-Kyu Lee 
    • 1
  • Young-Ho Suh 
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Computer Science Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer ScienceKorea Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologySouth Korea
  2. 2.Contents Technology DepartmentElectronics and Telecommunications Research Institute(ETRI)South Korea

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