Robust Image Watermark Using Radon Transform and Bispectrum Invariants
Image watermark that is resistant to geometric distortion is remained to be an unsolved problem. Difficulty of the probelm comes from the situation that the watermark should be extracted without any information of the original image. In this paper, we review this problem and propose a new watermarking scheme based on invariant pattern recognition theory. We propose an invariant watermark using the Radon transform and higher order spectra. A bispectrum feature vector of the image is used as the watermark. Our approach differs from the previous methods in that we embed watermark into the phase of the higher order spectra. Also, our Radon embedding grid outperforms the Fourier-Mellin based methods. We devised a new embedding method which allows detection of the watermark when there is no exact inverse function during embedding. As we use the Radon transform, our method can be used for medical images. We show the invariance of the designed watermark with mathematical proofs. Experimental results confirm that this scheme is resistant to geometric distortions.
KeywordsFeature Vector Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Watermark Image Watermark Scheme Geometric Distortion
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- F. Hartung and M. Kutter, “Multimedia watermarking technique,” Proc. IEEE, Vol 87, pp. 1079 1107, July, 1999. 145Google Scholar
- F.A.P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M.G. Kuhn, “Attacks on copyright marking systems,” in Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop on Information Hiding, pp. 218–238, 1998. 145, 147, 155Google Scholar
- G. Csurka, F. Deguillaume, J. J.K. O’Ruanaidh, and T. Pun, “A Bayesian approach to affine transformation resistant image and video watermarking,” Proc. 3rd Int. Workshop on Information Hiding pp. 315–330, 1999. 146Google Scholar
- M. Kutter, “Watermarking resisting to translation, rotation, and scaling,” Proc. SPIE Multimedia Systems Applications, pp. 3528 423–431, 1998. 146, 152Google Scholar
- M. Kutter, S.K. Bhattacharjee, and T. Ebrahimi, “Towards second generation watermarking schemes,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, pp. 320–323, 1999. 146Google Scholar
- S. Guoxiang and W. Weiwei, “Image-feature based second generation watermarking in wavelet domain,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol l2251, pp. 16–21, 2001. 146Google Scholar
- C. Nikias and M. Raghuveer, “Bispectrum estimation: A digital signal processing framework,” Proc. IEEE, Vol 75, July pp. 869–889 1987. 146Google Scholar
- Y. Horikawa, “Bispectrum-based feature of 2-D and 3-D images invariant to similarity transformations,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 511–514, 2000. 146Google Scholar
- I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and A.L. Mckellips, “Watermarking as communications with side information”, Proc. IEEE, Vol 87, July, pp. 1127–1141, 1999. 147Google Scholar
- A. K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989. 148Google Scholar