WRAPS Scheduling and Its Efficient Implementation on Network Processors

  • Xiaotong Zhuang
  • Jian Liu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2552)


Network devices in high-speed networks need to support a large number of concurrent streams with different quality of service (QoS) requirements. This paper introduces a new packet scheduling algorithm and its efficient implementation on the novel programmable network processor-Intel’s IXP1200. WRAPS algorithm is based on the observation of packet rates within a dynamic window. The window can move continuously or discretely as the system transmits packets. Cumulated packet rates in the window are utilized to predict the next incoming packet of the same flow and reserve resource for the transmission of later packets. The implementation on network processor considers both accuracy and efficiency. To expedite the calculation and avoid the high cost of maintaining an ordered list, we designed a time- slotted circular queue to achieve O(1) insertion and selection time. Our experiments on the real system show good performance in terms of scalability and flow interference avoidance.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Parekh, A Generalized Processor Sharing Approach to Flow Control in Integrated Service Networks. PhD thesis MIT, Feb, 1992.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jon C.R Bennett and Hui Zhang, “Hierarchical packet fair queueing algorithms”, In ACM SIGCOMM.96, pp 143–156, Aug 1996.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jon C.R Bennett and Hui Zhang, “WF2Q: Worst-case fair weighted fair queueing”, In IEEE INFOCOMM.96, pp 120–128, Mar 1996.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.R. Hashemi, A. Leon-Garcia, “A RAM-based generic packet switch with scheduling capability”, Broadband Switching Systems Proceedings, pp.155–163, Dec.1997Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Richard West, Karsten Schwan, “Dynamic Window-Constrained Scheduling for Multimedia Applications,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 1999.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Crowley, M.E. Fiuczynski, J. Baer, B.N. Bershad, “Characterizing processor architectures for Programmable Network Interfacess”, Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Supercomputing,
  7. 7.
    Kang Li, J. Walpole, Dylan McNamee, Calton Pu and David C. Steere, “ A Rate-Matching Packet Scheduler for Real-Rate Applications”, Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN’01), January 2001Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Victor Firoiu, Jim Kurose, Don Towsley. “Efficient Admission Control for EDF Schedulers”. In Proc. of the IEEE INFORCOM’97 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.Y. Zhang, J.W.S. Liu, Z. Deng, I. Philp, “Hierarchical Scheduling of Periodic Messages in an Open System”, Real-Time Systems Symposium,1999. Proceedings The 20th IEEE, 1999.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rabindra P. Kar, “Implementing Rhealstone Real-Time Benchmark”, Dr. Dobb’s Journal, April 1990Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    “IXP 1200 Network Processor: Software Reference Manual”, Part No. 278306-005. Sep.2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    “IXP 1200 Network Processor: Programmer’s Reference Manual”, Part No. 278304-006. September, 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    “IXP 1200 Network Processor: Development Tools User’s Guide”, Part No. 278302-005. October,2000.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Richard West and Karsten Schwan, “Dynamic Window-Constrained Scheduling for Multimedia Applications”, IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, 1999.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Austen McDonald and Weidong Shi, “Intel IXP 1200 Howto”, Feb 11, 2001
  16. 16.
    Nicholas Malcolm, Wei Zhao, “Hard Real-Time Communication in Multiple-Access Networks”,, 1995.
  17. 17.
    D. Saha, S. Mukherjee, and S. K. Tripathi, “Multirate Scheduling of VBR Video Traffic in ATM Networks”, IEEE J. of Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.15, No. 6, Aug. 1997Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaotong Zhuang
    • 1
  • Jian Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Georgia Institute of TechnologyCollege of ComputingAtlanta
  2. 2.Georgia Institute of TechnologySchool of ECEAtlanta

Personalised recommendations